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Peoplese Features

Word Order

            Peoplese uses mainly subject-verb-object (SVO) word order.  E.g. I go home.
            But in Peoplese OVS and VSO word order are also correct.  Home i go.  Go i home.
            Uses of OVS and VSO include stylistic embellishments, emphasis, poetry, artistic license, humor, whim.

Verbs

        Peoplese has only four non-regular verbs:


PRESENT     PAST PAST PARTICIPLE NEGATIVE

be  am / are / is     was / were been    is not, are not, was/ were not

do  did / doed     done / doed  do not, did not
                                 (Use of “doed” is optional; but “does” and “doesn’t” are not words in Peoplese.)
go goed / went
goed / gone
                                 (Use of “goed” is optional, as in “He comed and goed.”  But “goes” is not a word in Peoplese.)
have  had   had  have not, had not
                                 (“has” and “hasn’t” are not words in Peoplese.)

                  All other verb forms are regular./p>

            To form past tense, to the root verb we add “۔d” unless the root verb ends in “e”, in which case we just add “d”.
                        No exceptions.  Example:  He stand۔d upright.  

            No “s” endings to third-person singular present-tense verbs.  E.g. He watch her.

            All verbs can be both transitive and intransitive.  E.g. (if the context is clear), “Don’t forget to remind.”

            Except for the four non-regular verbs (be, do, go, have), all past participles used as adjectives are regularized.  Thus. breaked vase, losed purse, freezed dessert, teared paper, rotted apple.  (English:  broken vase, lost purse, frozen dessert, torn paper, rotten apple.)

        Speculative sentences:
                English, in what it dubs “subjunctive mood”, switches “was” to “were”.
                Peoplese avoids this bizarre and functionless complication.


PEOPLESE   
If i was rich, i would be happier. 
I wish i was taller.    
If Pete was smarter, he’d be successful
ENGLISH 
If i were rich, I would be happier.
I wish I were taller.
If Pete were smarter, he’d be successful.

        Subjects and verbs are not required in every sentence.

                E.g. in English “It is raining”, “it” has no meaning, and “is” links “it” with “raining”, thus fulfilling English’s requirement that every sentence have a subject and a verb.  Peoplese, e.g., “Now raining.”  “Just start۔d raining.”  Or just, “Raining.”

                Generally, we use verbs to describe motion.  If a sentence doesn’t describe motion, it needn’t have a verb.

                        E.g. In the English sentence, “The man is tall”, “is” not only has no meaning, it artificially limits description, because not only is the man tall now, he was tall yesterday and will be tall tomorrow.  In Peoplese, if we know which man we’re referring to, we can say, as a child might, and as the Chinese do, “Man tall.”  (Articles such as “the” are not required, as we shall see.)  Including “is” makes more sense in “The water is boiling, so shall I add the carrots?” but we can just as easily say, “Water boiling,…”

                 Verbs in action-less sentences often form false statements.  Eg, "The building stood on the hill.”  What else was it doing?  Flapping its roof?
 

Adjectives

                  Past-participle verbs (often ending in "-d") can be used as modifiors.  E.g. heavily wax۔d car; sweeten۔d tea (tea which has been sweetened), freshly skin۔d fish (a fish that has been recently skinned, pave۔d road (road that has been paved), severely criticize۔d student.

                  Note:  -d۔ is not added to adjectives or nouns used as modifiors.  E.g. black-skin man, hand-size telephone, pale-blue crayon, half-size statue, five-bed∙rooms house, seven-years-old daughter, white-uniform nurses, car-size boat, three-wheels rickshaw, brown-skin mans, two-vehicles-wide road

Ordinal Numbers

                  Adding the prefix "dee" plus hyphenette converts cardinal to ordinal numbers.

                  E.g. dee-twenty (English twentieth), d-eleven (eleventh), dee-ninety-one (ninety -first)

                  Note:  English "first" has two Peoplese options:  first and dee-one. 

                        The same with:  second, third, forth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth ninty, tenth.


Nouns  

        No irregular plurals

        To render a noun plural, just add “s”, except in the case where the singular noun ends in “s”, in which case add “es”.  Examples:  medium, mediums; crisis, crisises; ourself, ourselfs, activity, activitys, wife, wifes; datum, datums; oasis, oasises; lily, lilys, taxi, taxis;

        Foreign noun imports are fine, but their plurals follow Peoples plural rules, not foreign plural rules.  Examples:  alumnus, alumnuses; bacterium, bacteriums, nebula, nebulas

        No exceptions.  E.g. mouse, mouses; man, mans; ox, oxes; swine, swines; phenomenon, phenomenons

        When we mean more than one, we use plurals.

              Examples:  He catch three fishes.  She have blond hairs.  The new grasses appear pale green.

       Additionally, “people” is singular, “peoples” plural. 

Articles:  a, an, the, ap

        Articles are not required before singular nouns.  When useful, they are handy to insert; when not needed for clarification, they clutter.  In English, the most frequently used word is one of the least useful, and one of the most difficult for foreigners to pronounce:  “the”.  Oriental and southeastern Asian languages have no articles, and can clearly communicate meaning. E.g., "In India near end of dry season..."  In the sentence, "In India near the end of the dry season,...", both "the's" add nothing but clutter.  

        Articles do have a function.  Compare the general, ‘Of all desserts, i like heartberry pudding best” to the specific, “Of all the desserts, i like the heartberry pudding best.”  (But not, “…the best.”)  "Of all the deserts..." refers to specific deserts already known to the listener; e.g., used by a waitress, after handing a menu to a diner.  "Of all deserts..." refers to all deserts everywhere, not just the ones at hand. 

        "ap" is an article meaning "approximately".

Derivatives

            Good news for languages users, bad news for grammar tyrants:  It’s not wrong to add prefixs and suffixes to root words, to form words not in Webster’s Dictionary or Microsoft Word’s spell-check.  Any comprehensible combination is acceptable.
 

You's, Yous', Your, Yours

            you’s               belonging to you (singular).  E.g. Mister, is this wallet you’s?
            yous’               belonging to you (plural).  E.g. Hey boys, is this ball yous’?
            yous∙both       you two  (Used when clarity is necessary.)
            yous∙all           you (more than two people).  (Used when clarity is necessary)
            your                 belonging to you (singular).  (Same as English.)  E.g. Here is your pen.
            yours               belonging to you (singular or plural).  (Same as English.)  
                                              E.g. That idea of yours is interesting.  (not indicated whether singular or plural).

Language names

            The name of a language is derived by adding suffix "ese" to the name of the nation or ethnicity.  As with all suffixes, "ese" is preceded by a hyphnette.  E.g. English "English" becomes Peoplese "England-ese", "German" => "Deutschland-ese", "Chinese" => "China-ese", "French" => "France-ese", "Thai" => "Thai-ese" ("Thai" being the name of the ethnicity), "Japanese" => "Nihon-ese"

            Therefore, in Peoplese, language names need not be memorized; simply add hyphenette + ese to the nation or ethnicity.

             In Peoplese, all language names are capitalized.

 

Demonyms

            A demonym is the name used for a people who live in a particular ethnicity, nation or other locality.  In Peoplese, demonyms are formed according to the following rule.

                    If the locality or ethnicity ends in a vowel, add "n".  E.g. American, Mexicon, Europen.

                    If the locality or ethnicty ends in a consonant, add "an".  E.g. Brasilan, Chinan, Englandan, Francen,                                         Irakan (English "Iraqi").

            Therefore, the name of a people need not be memorized.  E.g. Londonan (English "Londonor"), Michiganan ("Michigander"), Pakistanan (English "Pakistani"), Slavan (English "Slavic"), Somalian (English "Somali").
 

Regional Adjectives

            To convert a regional name into a regional adjective, simply add the standard adjective suffix "y" to the name.

            E.g. China-y currency, France-y architecture, Basil-y salsa, Kenya-y population.

             Therefore the ambiguous word "Chinese" is translated into Peoplese as either Chinan, China-ese, or China-y, depending on whether it refers to the people, the language, or a thing.  France-y architecture was designed by Francen architects who spoke France-ese.


Capitalization

            “I” is capitalized only at beginning of sentences.  E.g. From now on, i’ll try to remember that.
                       (English speakers:  Why do you capitalize “I” but not “you”?  If anything, shouldn’t it be the reverse?
                               Other major languages don’t do that.)

            Species words remain un-capitalized.  E.g. maple tree, peoples, lotus, sparrow, monkey.

           Proper names are capitalized.  If the generic word is part of a proper English name, capitalize it; otherwise not.
                        E.g. Lake Malawi, Mount Kilimanjaro, River Jordan, city Rio de Janeiro,
                        Cambridge University, planet Mars, Sind province, Kuhio Avenue, ABC Corporation.

            Regarding hyphenated proper names, the word after the hyphen is not capitalized. 

            Capitalize “God” if the meaning is that there is only one God; otherwise not.

                        I.e. capitalize God if referring to the one God of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Bahai religions.

                        Synonyms for the one God -- e.g. who, messiah, mastor, father -- are likewise capitalized.

                        Peoplese is an international language, so what is considered divine to some may not be considered divine to others.  Thus, pronouns referring to spiritual messengers, including Jesus, are not generally capitalized - although they may be capitalized, depending on the writer's preference.

            Capitalize the proper names of all astronomical entities, such as galaxies, stars, planets, moons.

                        Examples:  Milky Way galaxy, planet Saturn's moon Titan, the star Electra is in the constellation Taurus.

                        Earth (peoples’ planet) is capitalized, but not “the sun” and “the moon”, meaning Earth’s sun and moon.

           Capitalize the names of languages.  (See language section, above.)

           Capitalize titles when preceding proper names.  Examples:  Misses Johns, Miss Jones, King Tut, 
                        Prime-ministor Kio, President Lee, Doctor No, Miz Sugarfoot (English:  Ms. Sugarfoot), 
                        Professor Higgins, Dentist Sapperstein, Father Brown, Prophet Mohammad, Mister Lin,  
                        Doctorate Park.

            If just a description and not a title, don’t capitalize.  E.g., dictator Hitler, teachor Lucy, lawyer Khan.

            Capitalize titles of books, articles, stories, movies, songs, etc. 
                    No other punctuation needed (i.e. don’t need to under-line the titles or surround them in quotation marks).

            Monetary currencies are not capitalized.  Thus:  dollars, euros, kyat, baht, etc.

            “Internet” is capitalized (but not preceded by the article “the”).

 

Under-line words for emphasis.

            “Never again!”  he shouted.   “Do you really want me to go?” she asked me.

            Unlike italics, you can underline words whether writing by hand or typing.

 

Italics

            1. Sounds (dogs parking, knocks on doors).  Arf!  Arf!

            2. Foreign vocabulary words not in Peoplese dictionary.  She sayed, “Adios,” and walked away.

                        But foreign words that are proper nouns (and are thus capitalized) are not italicized.  E.g. Dao religion.

            ( Italicize the punctuation around italicized words.  E.g.  The car barked.  Honk!  Hong! )

 

Abbreviations

             None.  No abbreviations are used in Peoplese.

 

Acronyms.  Eg, KMT, MRT, USA, AIDS, SARS, PRC, NATO

            Peoplese has only two permanent acronyms:  BCE (“before common era”, i.e. before the year zero), and CE (“common era”, referring to years after zero).  Originally the year zero was set as the birth year of Jesus, although later historians believed Jesus was born a few years earlier.  For all other acronyms, in each piece of writing, the first time write out the full name followed by the acronym in parenthesis.  E.g. “United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) collapsed during 1991.”

 

Romanization of foreign language words

            Romanization is the conversion of words from languages with non-Latin alphabets (like Greek), and words from langauges with no alphabets (like Thai), into letters of the Latin (Roman) alphabet:  a., b., c, ...z.

            Except proper nouns, all foreign words are italicized.

            Chinese romanization:

                        Use mainland China’s pinyin romanization system, with the folloing exceptions: 
                                Pinyin “q” (pronounced like a heavily aspirated “ch”) is represented in Peoplese as:  chh 
                                Pinyin "v" is (pronounced as German umlaut "u") in Peoplese is simply "u".    
                                Pinyin "x" (pronounced like "s" with tongue farther back), in Peoplese is:  "ss".

                        Most personal names are two-character combinations; in that case, only the first letter of the two-character combination is capitalized, e..g. Máo Zédōng..  The same applies to most cities, e.g. Shanghai (“by sea”) and Beijing (“north capital”).

                        If the romanized Chinese will likely be read by Chinese readers, it will be incomprehensible to them without tone marks.  In Mandarin, the national language of China, the four tones can be signified by a mark above the vowel, as:  qīngqíngqǐngqìngor, if vowel marks not available:  qing1, qing2, qing3, qing4.  The neutral tone requires no mark or number.

            Arabic romanization:

                        Arabic romanizations commonly use "q" not followed by "u"; for Peoplese, "q' becomes "k".         
                                    Therefore Islam's holy book is spelled in Peoplese, "Koran".   "Iraq" becomes "Irak".

                        Sheeite  (not the English spelling, “Shi’ite")

                        “el” (not English alternatives “al” or “al-”) when inserted within a person’s name.

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