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Peoplese Prefixes

      A prefix is followed by a hyphen only if:
               1. The designated meaning of the prefix plus the meaning of the root word equals the meaning of the combination.
               2. The meaning of prefix + root word must be unambiguously clear.

      The meaning of the prefix is only that meaning which is listed below.
               Note:  It is not wrong to include or exclude a hyphen that doesn't conform to literary Peoplese.

      Advantages of hyphenated fixed-meaning prefixes:
                The hyphen isolates the root word, for easy recognition.
                Clarifies ambiguities.  E.g. “replace” (substitute) and “re-place” (move to a different place) have different meanings.
                Eliminates hundreds of vocabulary words no longer needed to memorize.
                Encourages usage of prefixes when creating new words.

PREFIX WHEN MEANING EXAMPLES
ambi- both
ambi-sexual (English "bisexual")
 anti-
 against, opposed to
 anti-slavery
arch-  most important arch-duke, arch-enemy
 auto-  automatically (with the aid of technology)
 auto-pilot
 bi-  twice per  bi-weekly
 bio-  biological  bio-degrade-able
centi- 1/100 centi-meter
co-  joint, joinly co-author
counter-  counter to, in response to counter-attack, counter-claim
 dee-  changes cardinal number to ordinal number
 dee-eleven, dee-thirty-two  [English 11th, 32nd]
deka- 10 deka-meter
dis-  reverse previous action of verb after hyphen dis-connect, dis-embark, dis-invite, dis-button
 ee-  electronic  ee-mail, ee-processor [English "computer"]
ex-  former ex-boss, ex-wife
 exo-  outside Earth's solar system
 exo-planet
half-  one-half
half-liter, half-circle
intra-  within intra-national
kilo-  1,000 kilo-gram, kilo-meter
macro-  from a large perspective macro-economics
mass-  pertaining to a relatively huge number mass-production, mass-migration
mega-  gigantic mega-peninsula
micro-  very small, from a small perspective micro-credit
mid-  mid (approximate) mid-afternoon, mid-aged
mili-  1/1000 milli-liter, milli-gram
mini-  relatively tiny mini-skirt
mis-  wrong ( + noun), wrongly ( + verb) mis-direction, mis-spell
multi-  many mutli-national, multi-colored
non-  not, lack of, absence of, not in that category non-combatant, non-arrival
part-  part, partly (not wholly) part-way
post-  after post-graduate
pre-  before pre-pay
 pro-  in favor of  (opposite of "anti-")
 pro-war
 pseudo-  not genuine in spite of appearances
 pseudo-science
quarter- one-quarter (approximate) quarter-moon
quasi- partly but not wholly resembling quasi-democratic
re- again re-enter, re-do
self- self self-defense, self-critical, self-biography
sub- at a lower location in a hierarchy sub-category
super- (converts modifier into superlative) super-enviable, super-rich
supra-  transcending supra-natural
trans-  across trans-continental
 tri-
 thrice per
 tri-weekly
ultra-  excessive beyond common norms ultra-sensitive
un-  contrary to, opposite of un-fair, un-legal
under-  under (a location) under-water
uni-  one, single uni-culture
vice-  second in command vice-admiral, vice-president


Distinction between prefixes “non-” and “un-” 
            Non- is neutral, un- is negative.  A laborer has a non-professional job; a lawyer shouting at a client elicits un-professional behavior.  So:  non-combatant (e.g. a nurse on a battlefield), non-starter (not able to start), non-restrictive (without restrictions), non-legal (absence of any legal jurisdiction).  But:  un-clean (dirty), un-gentlemanly (rude), un-fair (biased), un-truthful (false), un-legal (prohibited by law).  The distinction allows nuance.  E.g., non-helpful (did not bother to help) versus un-helpful (a hindrance).  E.g. an un-conformist differs farther from normal behavior than a non-conformist; the former actively rebels, while the latter merely refuses to cooperate.  "Un-belief" (do not believe) is more skeptical and “non-belief” (don’t believe but don’t un-believe – not sure).

            Some words can take both prefixes, with slightly different meanings.  Examples
                    un-guarded implies should have been guarded but was not.  non-guarded, just not guarded.
                    un-flexible implies further resistance to change than non-flexible.
                    un-rational implies confused thinking, whereas non-rational implies not related to rationality.
                    un-mercifully suggests cruelty; non-mercifully implies lack of concern.
                    un-practical is not only non-practical but might have negative consequences.
                    Arriving late is not neutral, so is described by un-punctual, not non-punctual. 

Distinction between prefixes "un-", "non-", and "dis-".  
            The Peoplese prefix "dis-" reverses the action of the root verb, so English "unbutton" is Peoplese "dis-button".  Similarly, "dis-latch", "dis-do", "dis-fasten"; "dis-cover" (remove a cover previously put in place), while unhyphenated "discover" means to find out something not previously known. Thus, “non-buttoned” (not yet buttoned) and “dis-buttoned” (after being buttoned, the reverse action) have different meanings. 

Examples of word beginnings not followed by hyphens because of too many or confusing meanings:
            com, con, in, inter, over

Examples of words not hyphenated:
            “premature” means “doing some∙thing before its due time”, not “before mature”
            “undernourished” does not refer to a location; it means not sufficiently nourished.
            “recover” means return to former state; “re-cover” mean “cover again” (e.g. a pot on a stove)
            “renew” cannot mean  “again new” because “new” is not a verb.
            “repay”  means “pay back”, not “pay again”.
            “resolve” means "find a solution", "settle an argument"; "re-solve” means “solve again”, e.g. if first solution unsatisfactory.
            “underweight” does not refer to a location; it means “less than average weight”.
            “ultra” when not meaning “excessive” is of course not hyphenated.  E.g. ultrasound, ultraviolet, ultramontane.
            Speakers and writers of literary Peoplese will use the above and similarly confusing words sparingly, if at all.


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