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Pronouns

                        Pronouns are substitute nouns – used to avoid repeat۔ing the noun multiple times in a sentence.
                                   Pronouns represent people.
                                   When talking to somebody, use “you” and “I”, etc., rather than personal names.

                        Pronouns (except “I”) are not capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence,
                                    with the exception of pronoun for God:  Ta (the gender۔less Peoplese pronoun).

             Like nouns, a pronoun can be a subject, a verb-object, indirect-object, and preposition-object.

                        Who or what the pronoun refers to (i.e. the referent) must always be completely clear.


          Chart of Personal, Possessive, and Reflexive Pronouns

Personal Pronoun
Possessive Pronoun
Possessive adnoun
Reflexive pronoun
I, me
mine, me's
my
myself
you
yours
your
yourself
he
he's
his
hisself
she
she's
her
herself
ta
ta's
ta's
taself
it
it's
it's
itself
we
we's
our
ourselfs
yous
yours, yousall's
your
yourselfs
they
they's
they's
theyselfs

Chart Notes

        Personal Pronouns are used for both subjects and objects in a sentence.
                         Ex:  They invited we to the party.
                 Personal Pronouns are valid for a sentence’s subjects plus all objects (verb-objects,
                          indirect-objects, proposition-objects). 
                          [Contrastly, English uses separate pronouns for subjects and objects.]
                 Both “I” and “me” are acceptable for pronouns for first-person personal-pronouns..
                          “I want that.” and “Me want that” both acceptable.  “Me” a bit less formal.
                  “ta” means “he or she” – gender not specified.  From Mandarin Chinese.
                           Ex:  Somebody will come this afternoon; please give ta this envelope.
                          “ta” is also a pronoun for sprits, e.g. ghosts, gods.
                         
When referring to God when meaning ‘the one and only God”, pronoun "Ta" is capitalized.
                                    For Greek gods, use “ta” uncapitalized.

        Possessive pronouns
                  Possessive pronouns indicate possession.
                  Form (except first peron):  personal pronoun + apostrophe "s".
                          First person possessive pronouns:  mine, me's.  Both acceptable.
                  Ex:  That book iz mine / me’s.  No, it·iz she’s.  Or iz it they’s?

        Possessive-adnouns are unique words.
                 They are only used to indicate possession of a noun.  [Unlike English].
                 Thus, e. g., "her" and "his" are used only for possession.  For all other uses, use "she" and "he".
                         Ex:  my purse, your keys, her car, our house, your money.  Ex:  Please give her book to he.

        Reflexive-pronouns are used when the subject and verb-object refer to the same person.
                Reflexive-pronouns are formed by:  Possessive Adnoun + self (plus “s” when plural).
                A reflexive pronoun placed after a noun or pronoun emphasizes that noun or pronoun.
                         Ex:  She consider herself smart.  I often encourage myself.  They can entertain theyselfs.

        Intensive pronouns
                Intensive pronouns intensify -- add emphasis to -- the noun that they immediately follow.
                Intensive pronouns and reflexive pronouns are exactly the same words;
                         they are formed by:  Possessive Adnoun + self (plus "s" when plural.  See above chart.
                         Ex:  I myself hire۔d he.  Then the king himself enter۔d.  The boss herself tell۔d me.

        [English pronouns not in Peoplese:  him, hers, them, us, ours, their, theirs.]

Other Types of Pronouns

                Demonstrative-pronouns refer to something specific, while indicate۔ing (1) whether singular or
                            plural, and (2) whether the thing referred to is near or far from the speaker.
                            Ex:  this house (nearby, singular); that mountain (distant, singular);
                                    these houses (nearby, plural); those clouds (distant, plural).

                Indefinite-pronouns refer to something or somebody not specified.. They are always singular.
                            Indefinite pronouns:  anybody, anyone, either, neither, nobody, some, somebody.
                            Ex:  Anybody home?  Nobody to blame. Either path iiz okay.  Somebody call۔d me.

                Interrogative-pronouns ask questions.
                            There are 4 interrogative pronouns:  what, which, who, whose.
                            Ex:  Who iz she?  Which do you want?  Whose wallet is that?  You did what?
                            [English “whom” is not a Peoplese word; “who” is used instead.]

                Link-pronouns link a sentence’s main clause to a minor clause.  [English:  "relative pronouns"]
                            Link-pronouns:  that, which, who, whoever, whose.  ("whom" is not a Peoplese word)
                                    Ex:  He is the man who cheat۔d me.
                                   
Ex:  The person whose car is park۔d un۔legal۔ly, please move your car.
                                    Ex:  The shirt that you plan to give he iz too small.
                                    Ex:  That factory, which have been pollute۔ing the air dur decades, will soon close.
                            Distinguishing between “that” and “which” when used as link-pronouns:
                                    “Which” is used, after a comma, within parenthetic expressions,
                                                which can be removed and the sentence will still make senses.
                                    Ex:  In the above example, the parenthetical phrase, which begins with “which” and
                                                ends with “decades”, can be removed, and the sentence still makes sense:                                                           I.e., That factory will soon close.
                                    If not a parenthetical expression, use “that”.

                                                Ex:  The factory that has been polluting the area for decades will soon close.

                Reciprocal pronouns are used when two or more people do the same thing.
                            There are only two reciprocal pronouns:
                                    each other (used only for two peoplle
                                    one another  (used for 3 or more people.
                             Ex:  My brother and Ioften help each other.  Politicians often blame one another.

                Referentless pronouns do not refer to anything.
                        English eamples:  It is raining.  What time is itThere is nobody here.
                                    In the above sentences, "it" and "there" do not refer to anything.
                                    Therefore "it" links nothing to something - useless and verbose.
                        In English, referenless pronouns and senseless copulas appear because of
                                     English's requirement that every sentence include a subject and a verb,
                                              which is not a Peoplese requirement.
                        Referentless pronouns are permissible but discouraged in Peoplese.
                                     Ex:  Peoplese:  Now rain۔ing.  What time now?  Nobody here.
                                     Ex:  English:  It is unfortunate that you lost your ball.
                                           Peoplese:  Unfortunate that you lose۔d your ball.

Intimate Pronouns
       In some languages (e.g. Spanish), pronouns are either regular or intimate.  Family members and friends are addressed with an intimate pronoun (Spanish tu, you); acquaintances and strangers are addressed with regular pronouns (Spanish usted, you).  Therefore a speaker, when addressing an acquaintance, may switch from regular to intimate pronoun (in Spanish, from usted to tu).; the acquaintance addressed with an intimate form of “you” feels emotional warmth from the speaker, a welcoming into the speaker’s fold of family and close friends.  This ability to switch from a regular to an intimate way of saying “you” is an important feature of social cohesion among speakers of Hindi, Spanish, Portuguese, German, and dozens of other languages.  It is missing in English, but not in Peoplese.
      When translating dialog between family members to Peoplese from a language like Spanish
              which commonly uses intimate pronoun,  “you” must be translated as “oo”, etc.  Chart below.

        Archaic Pronouns
                In English, archaic pronouns are seldom used, but appear in ancient texts, e.g. the Bible.
                        They are also available in Peoplese, listed below.

        People Second-person Personal Pronouns (Summary):

REGULAR INTIMATE ARCHAIC

you
oo thou

you
oo thee  (objective of "thou", used as object of a verb or preposition)

yous
oos ye  (plural of "thou")

your, yours
soo's, oos'
thy  (possessive of "thou")


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