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Pronouns

            Pronouns are substitute nouns – used to avoid repeat۔ing the noun multiple times in a sentence.

                        When talking to somebody, use “you” and “i”, etc., rather than personal names.
                        Pronouns (including “i”) are not capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence,
                                    with the exception of pronoun for God:  Ta (the gender
۔less Peoplese pronoun).

Like nouns, a pronoun can be a subject, a verb-object, indirect-object, and
preposition-object.

                        Who or what the pronoun refers to (i.e. the referent) must always be completely clear.

            Personal pronouns represent people.

                        “ta” means “he or she” – gender not specified.  From Mandarin Chinese.
                                    “ta” is also a pronoun for sprits, e.g. ghosts, gods.
                                    When referring to God when meaning ‘the one and only God”, the

pronoun “Ta” is capitalized.  For Greek gods, use “ta” uncapitalized.

                                    Ex:  Somebody will come this afternoon; please give ta this envelope.

                        Both “i” and “me” are acceptable for pronouns for both subject and verb-objects..

                                    “I want that.” and “Me want that” both acceptable.  “Me” a bit less formal.

Subject pronouns and verb-object pronouns are the same word (unlike English).

                                    Ex:  They invited we to the party.

            Possessive pronouns

                                    Ex:  That book iz mine / me’s.  No, it·iz she’s.  Or iz it they’s?

Note that “you’s” (singular) and “yous’” plural are pronounced the same;

                                                if required for clarity, “yousall’s” can be used for the plural form “yous”.

            Possessive-adnouns are unique words.
                                    Ex:  my purse, your keys, her car, our house, your money.
            Reflexive-pronouns are used when the subject and verb-object refer to the same person.
                                    Ex:  She consider herself smart.  I often encourage myself.  They can entertain theyselfs.

                   A reflexive-prounouns place۔d after the subject emphasizes the subject.

Ex:  I myself hire۔d he.  Then the king hisself enter۔d.  The boss herself tell۔d me.

            Chart of Personal, Possessive, and Reflexive Pronouns

                        Personal-pronoun     Possessive-pronoun   Possessive-adnoun  Reflexive-pronoun

                        i, me                            mine, me’s                  my                             myself

                        you                              yours                           your                          yourself

                        he                                he’s                              his                              hisself

                        she                               she’s                            her                             herself

                        ta                                 ta’s                              ta’s                            ttaself

                        it                                  it’s                               it’s                             itself

                        we                               we’s                             our                             ourselfs

                        yous                             yours, yousall’s            your                           yourselfs

                        they                             they’s                           they’s                         theyselfs

 

                  Chart Notes

Subject-object-pronouns are valid for a sentence’s subjects plus all objects (verb-objects,

            indirect-objects, proposition-objects).

Subject-object-pronouns are used for both subjects and objects in a sentence.

Possessive-adnouns are unique words.  They are only used to indicate possession of the

            noun.  [Unlike English].

Possessive-pronouns are formed by subject-object pronoun + ’s

Reflexive-pronouns are formed by:  Possessive Adnoun + self (plus “s” when plural).

[English pronouns not in Peoplese:  him, hers, them, us, ours, their, theirs.]

                                    Specific-pronouns refer to something specific, while indicate۔ing (2) whether singular or

                                                plural, and (2) whether the thing referred to is near or far from the speaker.

                                           Ex:  this house (nearby, singular); that mountain (distant, singular);

                                                       these houses (nearby, plural); those clouds (distant, plural).

                               Indefinite-pronouns refer to something or somebody not mentioned.

                                           Ex:  Anybody home?  Nobody to blame. 

                               Interrogative-pronouns ask questions.

                                           Ex:  Who iz she?  Which do you want?  Whose wallet is that?  You did what?

                                           [English “whom” is not a Peoplese word; “who” is used instead.]

                               Link-pronouns link a sentence’s main clause to a minor clause.

                                           Ex:  He is the man who cheat۔d me. 

                                                       Ex:  The person whose car is park۔d un۔legal۔ly, please move your car.

                                           Ex:  The shirt that you plan to give he iz too small.

                                                            Ex:  That factory, which have been pollute۔ing the air dur decades, will

                                                                        soon close.

                                                Distinguishing between “that” and “which” when used as link-pronouns:

                                                            “Which” is used, after a comma, within parenthetic expressions, which

                                                                        can be removed and the sentence will still make senses.

                                                            Ex:  In the above example, the parenthetical phrase, which begins with

                                                                        “which” and ends with “decades”, and be removed, and the

                                                                        sentence still makes seense:  That factory will soon close.

                                                            If not a parenthetical expression, use “that”.

                                    Reciprocal pronouns are used when two or more people do the same thing.

                                                Ex:  We often help each other. 

Referentless pronouns do not refer to anything.

            [English examples:  It is raining.  What time is it?  There is nobody here.

                        In the above sentences “it” and “there” do not refer to anything;

                                    therefore “is” links nothing to something – useless and verbose.

                        In English referentless pronouns and senseless copulas appear because of

                                    English’s requirement that every sentence include a subject and a

                                    verb  (not a Peoplese requirement).]

            Referentless-pronouns are permissible but discouraged in Peoplese.

                        Peoplese:  Now raining.  What time now?  Nobody here.

            Ex:  English:  It is unfrotunate that you lost your ball.

                        Peoplese:  Un۔fortunate, that you lose۔d your ball.

 

      INTIMATE PRONOUNS

            In some languages (e.g. Spanish), pronouns are either regular or intimate.  Family members and friends are addressed with an intimate pronoun (Spanish tu, you); acquaintances and strangers are addressed with regular pronouns (Spanish usted, you).  Therefore a speaker, when addressing an acquaintance, to switch from regular to intimate pronoun (in Spanish, from usted to tu).  An acquaintance addressed with an intimate form of “you” feels emotional warmth from the speaker, a welcoming into the speaker’s fold of family and close friends.  This ability to switch from a regular to an intimate way of saying “you” is an important feature of social cohesion among speakers of Hindi, Spanish, Portuguese, German, and dozens of other languages.  It is missing in English, but not in Peoplese.

            Peoplese pronouns:                       


INTIMATE REGULAR

uu you  (informal, singular)

uus yous  (informal, plural)  E.g. I love uus.

uu's you's  (possessive of "you", singular)   E.g. Girl, don't forget uu's books.

uus' yous'  (possessive of "yous", plural)

uus∙both yous both  (used when needed for clarity, to indicate two only; rarely used)

uus∙both’s possessive of "uus∙both"

uus∙all yous all  (used when needed to emphasize "all"; rarely used.  English "y'all".

uus∙all’s possessive of "uus∙all".

            When translating dialog between family members to Peoplese from a language like Spanish which commonly uses intimate pronoun,  “you” must be translated as “oo”, etc.


        ARCHAIC  PRONOUNS

            In English, archaic pronouns are seldom used, but appear in ancient texts, e.g. the Bible.  They are also available in Peoplese.

            Peoplese pronouns:                          


INTIMATE REGULAR ARCHAIC

oo you thou

oo you thee  (objective of "thou", used as object of a verb or preposition)

oos yous ye  (plural of "thou")

oo's, oos' your, yours thy  (possessive of "thou")

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