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Peoplese Suffixes



Suffixes always follow hyphen-ets, and always adhere to their unique meaning, in contrast to
"word endings", added to root words without hyphens, and whose meanings vary.

Hyphen۔lets are short hyphens used within words. Hyphens are used in grammar, linking words..

The spelling and pronunciation of the root word does not change after adding the suffix.

Suffix list alphabetized is included below.


Size and shape suffixes

۔size, ۔wide, ۔tall, ۔high, ۔length, ۔shape, -۔long, ۔span, ۔et, ۔ets

Examples: head۔size, knee۔high, egg۔shape, hyphen۔ette,

ankle۔length dress, 12 kilo-meters۔long strait, wing۔span,

hump-shape (noun), nation-wide, island-et, truck-et, nation-et

Location suffixes

۔site, ۔top, ۔crest, ۔side, ۔around, ۔front, ۔rear, ۔bottom, ۔bound, ۔ward, ۔wardly

Examples: camp۔site, picnic۔site, mountain۔top, desk۔top, bed۔side, lap۔top,

roof۔top, river۔side, hill۔side, planet۔around, along۔side, lake۔side,

down۔ward, job۔site, river۔bottom, hill۔crest, north۔bound.

۔ward means “in the physical direction of” the word preceding it.

Examples: front۔ward, rear۔ward, wind۔ward, lee۔ward, left۔ward, right۔ward,

in۔ward, out۔ward, up۔ward, down۔ward, east۔ward.

۔ward can be used as a suffix for any noun, e.g. coast۔ward, city۔ward,

Mars۔ward, home۔ward, stern۔ward, Germany۔ward.

When “ward” at the end of a word does not indicate physical direction,

it is not a suffix, so is not hyphenated.

Examples: afterward, beforeward, coward, backward (less advanced)

awkward, toward (does not mean“in the direction of `to’”).

Time span suffixes

۔time, ۔times, ۔term, ۔span

Examples: day۔times, long۔term, some۔times, any۔time, memory۔span

life۔time, bed۔time, dinner۔time, meal۔times

Note: “space∙time” is a mid-dot word, not a hyphenated word,

because here “time” isn’t a suffix, like “meal۔time”.

People suffixes

۔ji

A term of endearment. From Hindi language.

E.g. swami۔ji (commonly used for gurus)

۔man, ۔mans, ۔woman, ۔womans, ۔people, ۔peoples, ۔lady, ۔ladys

Examples: police۔man, muscle۔man, handy۔man, boat۔man,

business۔man, watch۔man, French۔man, tribe۔man, Irish۔peoples,

English۔۔womans, crafts۔mans, tribe۔womans, tribe۔mans, crew۔mans,

door۔man, congress۔woman, cave۔man, snow۔man, sales۔ladys.


۔fellor

E.g. room۔fellor {English "roommate"], nation۔fellor ["fellow-citizen"] office۔fellor ["felllow office worker"]

seat۔fellort ["male seat-mate"], work۔fellorm [female work-mate]


Quantity suffixes

۔fold

“ten۔fold means “ten times”. (English “times”.)

E.g. four۔fold, multi۔fold, one-hundred۔old, 78۔fold, many۔fold.

۔full

When meaning that the noun preceding “۔full” is quantitatively filled to capacity.

NOUN۔full = NOUN filled to capacity.

Examples: car۔full, baskets۔full, room۔full, cups۔full, shovel۔full

wheelbarrel۔full (or wheelbarrel۔load – both okay), belly۔full, bags۔full.

If meaning is not "filled to capacity" use word-ending "ful" without hyphen۔et.

Examples: plentiful (which does not mean “full of plenty”), woeful,

wishful, wasteful, restful, skillful, un۔lgrateful, tasteful, useful,

colorful, cheerful, deceitful, delightful, doubtful, faithful.

۔load

When meaning: quantitatively loaded.

Examples: truck۔load, train۔load, ship۔loads

Examples of “load” endings which are not hyphenated: workload

۔some

When used as follows: “twenty۔some” means “some number between

20 and 30;” e.g. 21, 27, 29. E.g. He died thirty-some years later.

Comparative suffixes

-er

When meaning "more than one other similar item".

Examples: few۔er, big۔er, fast۔er, sunny۔er, easy۔er

The ۔er suffix can be added to any adjective, but for long adjectives some

writers and speakers may prefer to instead use "more" + adjective.

Examples:more expensive, expensive۔er (both correct);

more important, important۔er.

۔est

When meaning "more than all other similar items".

Examples: few۔۔est, big۔۔est, fast۔۔est.

The ۔est suffix can be added to any adjective, but for long adjectives some writers

and speakers may prefer to instead use "most" + adjective.

Examples:most expensive, expensive۔est; most important, important۔est.

Function suffixes

۔or (plural: -ors)

When meaning "one who" or "one which" + preceding verb..

Examples: accuse۔or (one who accuses), open۔or (that which opens),

beg۔or (he or she who begs), burn۔or (that which burns)۔.

Plurals: buy۔ors, collector۔ors, debate۔ors, fertilize۔ors.

-orm (plural: ۔orms)

When meaning "she who" + preceding verb.

Examples: drive۔orm (woman driver), gossip۔orms (ladys who gossip)

writers and speakers may prefer to instead use "more" + adjective.

۔ort (plural: ۔orts)

When meaning: "he who" + preceding verb.

Examples: report۔ort, message۔ort, farm۔orts, freelance۔ort.


Miscellaneous suffixes with obvious meanings

۔able (adjective), ۔ably (adverb)

When meaning "capable of" + root verb + "ing",

or: "capable of being" + root verb" + "ed".

Examples: print۔able (capable of being printed) cook۔able, diagnose۔able,

do۔۔able, climb۔able, solve۔able, forgive۔able.

deny۔ably, enjoy۔ably.

۔alike

When meaning “resembling or characteristic of”. (English "like".)

Examples: hermit۔alike, dragon۔alike, lady۔alike, frog۔alike eyes, war۔alike,

child۔alike

۔dom

When meaning "in the domain of" or "in the realm of" the preceding noun.

Examples: king۔dom, serf۔dom, hippie۔dom, dog۔dom.

۔inlaw, inlaws (English "in-law")

When meaning "related by lawful marriage".

Examples: mother۔inlaw, son۔inlaw.

۔land

E.g. holy۔land, marsh۔land, farm۔land, low۔land, timber۔land,

flat۔lands, Ami۔land (where Ami is a fictitious place),

grass۔land, vacation۔land

۔less (adjective), ۔lessly (adverb), ۔lessness (noun)

When meaning “without”.

Examples: seam۔less (without a seam or seams), root۔less (without roots).

taste۔less food, pilot۔less aircraft, window۔less room, bra۔less,

head۔less, father۔less, motion۔less, mate۔less, end۔lessly,

mercy۔less, home۔lessness

Examples “less” endings which are not hyphenated:

timeless (doesn’t mean “without time”)

ageless (doesn’t mean “without age”)

mindless (doesn’t mean “without mind”) ۔

۔style

E.g. parade-style, 1920s۔style, hairs۔style, bowing Japanese۔style

Misc. suffixes, but only when the suffixes have the following designated meanings

۔hood

When meaning “the condition of being a (preceding noun)”.

Examples: priest۔hood, toddler۔hood, orphan۔hood,

man۔hood, aunt۔hood, kitten۔hood

But “neighborhood” (one word), because it doesn’t mean “condition

of being a neighbor”.


۔ish, ۔ishly, ۔ishness

۔ish suffix used only when meaning "characteristic of but not identical to".

These suffixes can be added to any nouns and adjectives.

Examples: blue۔ish (not exactly blue), child۔ish (behaving like a child),

bald۔ish (still some hair remaining on top), giraffe۔ish.

۔ishly is the adverb. Example: child۔ishly.

۔ishness is the noun. Example: child۔ishness

۔proof

When meaning “impervious to some∙thing,capable of resisting

some∙thing that may have a harmful or un۔wanted effect.”

Examples: water۔proof, fool۔proof, bullet۔proof, rain۔proof, rust۔proof,

sound۔proof, wind۔proof, leak۔proof, dust۔proof, fire۔proof.


Suffixes that alter the preceding word's grammatical form


۔ness

A "۔ness" suffix converts an adjective to a noun.

Examples: good۔ness, cheerful۔ness, tidy۔ness.

۔in

The "۔in" suffix converts a verb to a noun.

The English equivalent is a "ing" ending gerund.

Examples: work۔in, build۔in, sing۔in, market۔in, ring۔in, teach۔in, gather۔in.

(English: working, building, singing, marketing, ringing, etc.,

nouns which are also verbs.)

Peoplese equivalent verbs: work۔ing, build۔ing, sing۔ing, etc.


۔yness (combining -y-ness)

A "۔yness" suffix converts a noun to a noun expressing condition, state, quality.

Examples: thrift۔yness, worth۔yness


۔y

Converts a noun to an adjective. All words ending in -y are adjectives.

Adjectives modify nouns.

Examples: Father۔y (English "fatherly"), saint۔y (English "saintly"),

thirst۔y (English "thirsty"), sick۔y (English "sickly")


۔ly

Converts nouns and adjectives to adverbs. All words ending in ۔ly are adverbs.

In Peoplese (unlike English) adverbs modify only verbs.

Examples: slow۔ly, quick۔ly, secret۔ly, private۔ly, gloom۔ly, drowse۔ly, guilt۔ly

۔ably

Converts an adjective ending in "able" to an adverb.

Examples: fashion۔able, fashion۔ably; reason۔able, reason۔ably


Suffix list alphabetized:

Suffix Type Description
Examples
-able  adjective
able to + root word

blame-able, climb-able
-ably  adverb
able to + root word

deny-ably, enjoy-ably
-alike  adjective
alike root word

child-alike, beetle-alike
 -alikeness  noun  alike root word, noun form

 God-alikeness, child-alikeness
-bottom  noun
location of root word

river-bottom
-bound  adjective
motion direction of root word

north-bound, Paris-bound
 -by  adadjective  indicates modifier of an adjective

 slight-by small-er item
-crest  noun
crest of root word

hill-crest, wave-crest
 -d  verb,            verbal-adjective
 past tense of root verb                        adjective indicating past action

 tell-d, live-d, want-d, risk-d     Please clean up the spill۔d milk.    
-dom  noun
domain of root noun

dog-dom, serf-dom, king-dom
 -eer / -eert, -eerm
 noun  refers to one who is acted upon
 rape۔eerm, fraud۔eer, murder۔eert
-er  adjective
comparitively more than root adj.

green-er, soon-er, high-er
 -ese  noun  language associated with root

 China-ese, England-ese
-est  adjective
superlatively more than root adj.

green-est, soon-est, high-est
-et (plural: -ets)
 noun
small size of root noun

nation-et, island-et, truck-ets
 -fellor / -orm / ort
 noun  somebody in the same group

 room-fellor
 -fest  noun
 gathering of root word type

 love-fest, music-fest, talk-fest
-fold  adjective
multiplied by root number

four-fold, many-fold, 78-fold
-front  noun
in front of root noun

lake-front, cabinet-front
-ful  noun
root filled to quantitative capacity

basket-ful, truck-ful
-high  adjective
root noun height

knee-high stool
-hood  noun
state of root noun
nation-hood, kitten-hood
 -in (plural: -ins)
 noun
 converts "ing"-ending verb to noun

 sing-in, work-in, build-in, say-in
 -ing  verb, verbal-adjective
 verb tense & adjective suffix         indicating continuation

 he is sing-ing, work-ing mother   chirp۔ing bird, sleep۔ing beauty
-inlaw  noun
root noun inlaw

mother-inlaw
-ish  adjective
similar (but more different than "-alike") to root word

boy-ish, yellow-ish, Spain-ish
-ishly (from -ish-ly)
 adverb
similar but different than root

fool-ishly, ape-ishly,  devil-ishly
-ishness (-ish-ness)
 noun
similar but different than root

prude-ishness, clown-ishness
 -ji  noun
 root noun endearment suffix

 swami-ji, Mary-ji
-lady  noun
root word lady

sales-ladys
-land  noun
root word land

marsh-land, flat-lands
-length  adjective
root word length

ankle-length dress
-less  adjective
without root word

seam-less, mercy-less
 -lessly (from -less-ly)
 adveb
 without root word

 noise-lessly, aim-lessly
 -lessness  noun
 without root word

 self-lessness, sense-lessness
-load  noun
root word load

truck-loads, wagon-load
-long  adjective
quantitative root word length
two-meters-long cart
-ly  adverb
converts root adjective to adverb
slow-ly, grim-ly, gloom-ly, guilt-ly
-man  noun
root word man

boat-man, snow-mans
-ness  noun
converts root adjective to noun

sturdy-ness, drab-ness
 -or (plural: -ors)
 noun
 one who + root verb
 farm-or (one who farms)
 -orm (plural: orms)
 noun
 female who + root verb

 farm-orms (females who farms)
 -ort (plural: orts)
 noun
 male who + word verb

 farm-ort (man or boy who farms)
-proof  adjective
impervious to root word

bullet-proof, rust-proof
-rear  adjective
rear of root word

house-rear, car-rear
-shape  adjective
shape of root noun

egg-shape man
-side  noun, adj.
side of root noun

river-side
-site  noun
site of root noun

picnic-site
-size  adjective
size of root noun

head-sized ball
-some  adjective
and then some + root number
twenty-some (21 to 29)
-span  adjective
root word span

wing-span, time-span
-style  noun
root word style

1920s-style hairs-style
 -t  passive verb
 indicates  passive mode verb
 The book wuz write۔t by he.
-tall  adjective
 root word tall

giraffe-tall tree
-term  adjective
root word term (period of time)

long-term
-time  noun
root word time

dinner-time, meal-times, any-time
-top  adjective
top of root noun

desk-top, hill-top
-ward  adjective
static direction of root noun

north-ward, Mars-ward, rear-ward
-wide  adjective
root noun wide

continent-wide nation
-woman  noun
root word woman

police-woman, English-womans
-y  adjective
converts root noun to adjective
thirst-y, prince-y, brother-y
-yer (from -y-er)  adjective
converts noun to comparative adj.
wealth-yer [2 syllables]
-yest (from -y-est)
 adjective
converts noun to superlative adj.
thrift۔yest [2 syllables]
 -yly (from -y-ly)  adjective
 converts root noun to adverb
 thirst۔yly [3 syllables]
-yness (from -y-ness)
 noun
converts root noun expressing a concept to noun expressing trait, condition, quality

thirft-yness, mess-yness,
worth
-yness, [3 syllables]

 

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