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Peoplese Usage

                                   General Usage Notes

            Accuracy – strive for.
                        Instead of, “The sun rised” (scientifically false), better write, “Sun appeared to rise”.
                        E.g., “At the end of year 2000, the population of Taiwan was ap 23 millions.”  Not English, “…was 23 million.”)
            Contractions -- In Peoplese contractions are formed with mid-dots.
                        E.g. English "don’t" = Peoplese do
∙not; English "aren’t" = Peoplese are∙not", etc.
                        Usage mainly depends on sound.  For cadence, sentence flow, etc.
                        Often used in dialog, so the dialog doesn’t sound stilted.  In English dialog, use to sound true-to-life.
            Emphasis.  Repeating an adjective adds emphasis.  E.g. a high high tree.  (Better than “a very high tree”.)  
                        (Southeastern languages such as Thai, Khmer and Filipino languages effectively use this pattern.)
            Length of Words
                        In general, the shorter the word the better, and the fewer syllables the better.
                        Maximum number of syllables allowed in Peoplese:  seven.  E.g. telecommunications.
            Pre-qualify statements before, not after, making the statement.
                        Example: “He did not lie except to Ben” momentarily misleads the reader or listener, who thinks he did not lie 
                                and then realizes he did actually some-times lie.  Better: “Except to Ben, he did not lie.”
            Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.  The English grammar distinction is irrelevant in Peoplese.
                        In Peoplese any verb can have an object, but objects are not required.
                        E.g., “We never had an accident, she reminded.”
            Measurements
                        Time:  era, millennium, century, decade, year, month, week, day, hour, minute, second.
                                7:31 p. m., 19:31, both refer to the same time. 
                        Length, distance:  metric system.
                        Temperature:  centigrade.
                        Dates: 
               
                Date format:  day + month + year.  E.g., 1-2-1995, 1/2/95, 1 Feb 1995, 30 March 2017.
                                BCE and CE (before common era and common era) – see acronyms. 
                                If neither BCE or CE is added after the year, it is assumed to be CE.
                        Number formats: 
                                    1205                years  (no comma)
                                    1,205               numbers  (commas after each 3 digits)
                        Number spelling:  Spell out numbers zero and one through ten; others use digital form.
                                E.g., All three friends were 24 years old.
                                Exceptions: 
                                        Mathematical and scientific texts.
                                        A number at the beginning of a sentence is spelled out.  E.g., Sixteen years ago…
                        Numbers / usage:
                                     three-meters tall tree (Not English, “three-meter tall tree”)
                                     five-years-old child  (Not English, “five-year-old child”)
                                    Forty-millions ants (not English, “40 million ants”).  21 thousands dollars (not English “21 thousand dollars”)
                                    “dozen” not used except within dialog quote∙marks of English speakors.  Use “tens”.
            Compass Directions
                        Around the compass, in sequence:  north, north∙east, east∙north, east, east∙south, south∙east, south, south∙west, west∙south, west, west∙north, north∙west.  I.e. east∙north is farther east than north∙east.  
                        North, east, south, west.  E.g. north is a noun only; northern is an adjective; e.g. the northern gate (not English the north gate).  North ۔ward means toward north; e.g. north۔ward of the river (not English north of the river).  North∙east is either exactly between north and east or more north than east; east∙north is either exactly between north and east or more east than north.  Etc.
                        Do not use up or down for compass direction (as in English).  E.g. Europe is not "above" Africa; traveling "up" from Hong Kong is possible in a hot-air balloon, but not on a train.

Usage by Topic

            Animal references
                        When the gender of the animal is not known or is not important or relevant, which is the general case, use “it” and “which”.  When the gender of the animal is known and is relevant or important (e.g. when speaking of a lioness of a pet, or telling a story from the animal’s viewpoint), use a gender pronoun (he, she, he∙she, etc.) and “who”. Examples:  Our dog Spot barks when he is hungry.  The snake, which slithered by near where Doris was sitting, disappeared into a hole; it later re۔appeared.
                        Flocks of birds, herds of animals, swarms (not schools) of fishes, swarms of bees.
            Bodily waste functions
                        “urinate” (liquid) and “poop” (solid) are the appropriate words for toilet functions.  But because the images they conjure up are not pleasant, the words are used with discretion.
            Clothes
                        abaya:  woman’s head-to-toe cloak-like garment, generally black, including head scarf, veil with eye holes or eye slit, worn in public by some Muslim women.
                        bell-bottom trouser:  trousers or slacks which flare out at the ankles.  Singular.
                        blouse:   a feminine-appearing shirt, typically worn by women.
                        burka:  woman’s head-to-toe cloak-like garment worn in public by some Muslim women, more conservative than an abaya because instead of a slit for eyes there is a screen, hiding her eyes.  Popular in Afghanistan.
                        business∙suit:  matching trousers and indoor jacket of expensive material.    
                        chador:  Worn by Iranian women in public, a full-body-length semi-circle of black fabric covering the body and hair, with no hand openings, buttons, clasps, etc., it is held together by her hands or tucked under her arms.
                        choli:  blouse worn beneath a sari by women in south Asia.  (See sari.)
                        g-string:  a patch of cloth just large enough to cover genitals, holded in place by a string around the waist and another below the trunk of the body.
                        denim:  the material jeans are made from.  E.g. blue denim trouser.
                        dress:  single-piece garment covering from neck to legs, traditionally worn by women.
                        gown:  fancy dress worn on formal occasions
                        jean:  denim trousers originally worn by USA cowboys; later:  popular casual trouser.  Singular.
                        jellabiya:  robe-like cotton garment, ankle-length, with loose sleeves, usually white in summer, worn by males in NE Africa.
                        keffiyeh:  headdress worn by some Arab men, usually fashioned from a square cotton scarf with a checkered pattern..
                        micro-skirt:  shorter than a mini-skirt.
                        mini-skirt:  skirt of short length, no lower than mid-thigh
                        necktie:  cloth tied around the neck, loose in front for the boss to jerk on.  Signifies subservience.
                        night-gown:  one-piece bed-time garment, not usually cinched at waist.
                        pajama (singular):   two piece bed-time garment, worn by males and females.
                        pant:  singular; each person normally wears one pant at a time
                        panty (singular):  scanty under-pant, considered sexy.  One worn at a time.
                        robe:  a long loose outer garment
                        sari:  south Asian women's traditional garment consisting of a long rectangle of fabric reaching the feet,       wrapped and pleated around the waist over an under-skirt and short-sleeved fitted top choli, and draped over one shoulder.
                        shirt:  generic term for garment covering from shoulders to waist.
                        short-trouser:  English shorts.
                        skirt:  legless garment weared from waist downward by women
                        trouser:  outer garment covering from waist to ankles, typically worn by men. 
                                trouser is singular; a man normally wears only one trouser at a time.
                        T-shirt:  a simple, usually cotton, usually relatively cheap, short-sleeve shirt without frills.
                        under-pant (singular):  worn beneath trousers and dresses.  Only one worn at a time.
                        under-clothes:  clothes worn beneath outer clothes.
            Curse substitute words.  If you drop something breakable and feel the need to exclaim your reaction, “darn”.  If your mistake is inconsequential (you drop your pen), "oops".  “Gosh” is handy if you hear unpleasant news; "golly" if you hear pleasant news.  "Gee" expresses enthusiasm.
            Curse words.  If you must curse, “shit” (which stinks) is acceptable except around children or others who might consider the word offensive.  Using “God” as a curse word seriously offends many religious people, and automatically categorizes the speaker as either ignorant or insensitive and of base character.
            Embryo & fetus.  Embryo:  from the fertilized egg to when the pre-born form clearly resembles a newborn of its species (in humans, about 8 weeks after conception).  The subsequent fetal stage is characterized by increased growth and development of the organ systems, and ends at birth.
            Foods
                        meat dumplings  (common Chinese food).
            Furniture
                        drawerstack:  a low cabinet consisting of a set of drawers, usually for storing clothes.  (English, "chest of drawers".)
                        wardrobe:  a tall free-standing cabinet for storing clothes.
            Gender / age designations 
                        lad and laddy (affectionate word for lad):  a boy or un-married young man.
                        lass and lassy (affectionate word for lass):  a girl or un-married young woman.
                        child:  a girl (too young to birth a baby) or a boy (too young to impregnate a woman).
                        teenagor, teenagort, teenagorm: youngsters between ages 12 and 20 years old.
                        lady:   a woman, with the connotation of dignified, well-behaved, attractive, feminine.
                        gal:  a young woman
                        guy:  a young man
                        galfriend: a woman with whom one has a romantic relationship.  English 'girlfriend".  A "girl" is a child.
                        guyfriend :  a man with whom one has a romantic relationship.  English "boyfriend".
                        man, woman:  refer to mature adults, with no romantic or sexual connotation.
                        man friend, woman friend:  (no hyphen or mid-dot), used for just friendships.
              Land vehicle passage∙ways
                        Within cities and towns:
                                  boulevard:  a broad avenue including a strip of park (grass, flowerbeds, trees, walkways).
                                  avenue:  a wide street that is a main thoroughfare.
                                  street:  in a city, a public thoroughfare for vehicles, usually paved, usually with side∙walks.
                                  lane:  in a city, a short narrow street.
                                  alley:  in a city, a narrow passage∙way between the rears or sides of buildings.
                        In the country:
                                  toll throughway:  a thoroughfare which charges tolls.
                                  throughway:  an expressway with a dividor strip of land between lanes of vehicles moving in opposite directions, accessible only by on- and off-ramps, with no traffic signal lights, providing a relatively safe means of high-speed vehicle traffic, usually limited to cars, between distant places.
                                  expressway:  a paved country road between distant places allowing for vehicle traffic typically at higher speeds than roads, usually with intersections marked by traffic signal lights.  (English “highway”, a misnomer.)
                                  road:  in countryside, a long route, paved or unpaved, usually wide enough to accommodate vehicles going in opposite directions.
                                  lane:  in the country, a short narrow passage∙way, often between hedges, fences, yards.
            Military
                        terrorist: a person who uses non-military violence against civilians in an attempt to further a political purpose.  Also terrorism.  (But attacks on civilians by conventional military forces are no less terrifying.)
                        guerrilla:  a member of a non-regular military unit fighting a conventional army.
            Music
                        pentatonic scale:  the common 5-notes scale, used e.g. in most blues music.  (penta means 5 in Greek.)
                        heptatonic scale:   the common 7-notes scale, used e.g. in most European classic music.  (hepta means 7 in Greek.)
                        (English “octave” is confusing:  1 octave has 8 notes, 2 octaves have 15 notes.)
            Race and ethnicity classifications  (descriptive, not offensive, words)
                        4 surviving races:  Amerindian (American Indian), Caucasian, Oriental (Chinese, Japanese, Korean), Negro.
                        creole:  a person of African ancestry born in the American hemisphere.
                        mestizo:  a person of mixed races.  E.g. Caucasian and Amerindian.
                        mulatto:  Caucasian and Negro mix.
            Sex  (These words, which should not be considered offensive, fill a need for a decent way for consenting adults to discuss sex.)
                        ambisexual:  attracted to both genders.  (English, "bisexual".)
                        bayot:  male homosexual (noun and adjective).  (English "gay".)  (From Visayan, a central Philippines language.)
                        blowjob:  suck cock
                        boner:  erect penis                         
                        boobs:  women’s breasts, with a sexual connotation.  Men and chickens, etc., also have breasts.
                        boomboom:  penis-vagina sexual union accompanied by mutual friendliness, romance, and/or love. 
                                A Thai and Filipino word.  (English “make love” is usually a misnomer.)
                        boomboom-less sex:  sexual activity without sexual union.
                        butt:  buttocks.  2 buttocks = 1 butt.  English “ass” is not a Peoplese word; the animal is "donkey".
                        butterfly:  somebody (typically a man) who habitually switches sex partners.  Also a flying insect.
                        buxom:  full-bosomed; large female breasts.  Not necessarily with a sexual connotation.
                        cock:  penis, with a sexual connotation.
                        dyke:  an obviously masculine homosexual woman.
                        foreplay:  pre-boomboom sex.
                        fornicate:  fuck or boomboom outside of marriage.
                        fuck:  penis-vagina sexual union without love or romance, as during rape or by animals.
                                Men can either boomboom or fuck prostitutes (or their wives), depending on the level of warmth.  Noun & verb.
                                English “intercourse” is not a sexual word in Peoplese.
                        fuckor:  someone who fucks.
                        fuckee:  someone who is fucked.
                        gender:  a division of life forms (including people) into male or female.  English “sex”.
                        homosexual:  a man or woman sexually attracted to his or her same gender.  In Peoplese, “gay” means “merry”.
                        horny:  feeling of intense need for sexual action.  A temporary condition, like “hungry”. 
                        ladyboy:  an obviously effeminate homosexual male.
                        liaison:  secret, romantic, sexual relationship between non-married man and woman.
                        lick pussy:  tongue massage of interior of partner's vagina.
                        lesbian:  a female homosexual; a woman sexually attracted to women.
                        lustful:  strong desire to engage in sex.  A character trait, like “ambitious”.
                        oral∙sex:  mouth-to-genital sexual activity.
                        nude:  “naked”, with a sexual connotation.  Babies can be naked.
                        pussy:  “vagina”, with a sexual connotation.  All female mammals have vaginas.
                        sex:  not a synonym for "gender".
                        sex∙life:  those aspects of a person’s life relating to sexual activity
                        sodomy:  penis-into-anus sex
                        suck cock:  suck erect penis
                        transvestite:  somebody who adopts the dress and often the behavior of the other gender
                        yumyum:  suck cock  (Thai and Khmer English)
            Spiritual 
                        Koran:  the Peoplese spelling Islam’s holy book.  (In English, variously “Qu’ran”, “Quran”, “Koran”.)
            Sports
                        football:  English “soccer”.  The ball itself is designated by “football ball”.
                        ovalball:  American English "football" (a misnomer) played with an oval-shape ball.
                        Other sports:  basketball, tennis, field hockey, ice hockey, dodgeball, baseball.
            Titles
                        Political titles
                                President:  used only for fairly elected head of a democratic government.  E.g. President Abe Lincoln.
                                Prime Ministor:  used only for fairly elected head of a parliamentary-style democratic government..
                                Senator:  used only for a fairly elected legislator of a Senate, whether national or provincial.
                                Congress ۔man, Congress ۔woman:  used only for people fairly elected to a national congress.
                                King:  a male monarch.  Also:  Queen, Prince, Princess.  E.g. King Henry, Princess Diana.
                                dictator (not capitalized; a designation, not a title):  applies to any national leader who is neither a monarch nor fairly elected.
                                         E.g. dictator Saddam Hussein.
                                tyrant (not capitalized, a designation, not a title).  A tyrannical dictator.  E.g. tyrant Stalin.
                        Personal titles  (capitalized; used without abbreviations)
                                Dentist (for a dentist).  E.g. Dentist Sapperstein.
                                Doctor (for medical doctor):  E.g. Doctor Tracey Rhodes.
                                Doctorate (for Ph. D. graduate):  E.g. Doctorate Puff Sunpath Moore.
                                Miss  (for an unmarried woman)
                                Misses (for a married woman)
                                Miz (for a woman without distinction between married or unmarried). 
                                Mister (for men, married or unmarried)
                                Professor (for university professor).  E.g. Professor Chang.
                                Designations of lower-level professions and careers are not capitalized:
                                        e.g. plumbor Heinz, lawyer Reed, teachor Lee (of elementary or middle-school), president Clark (of a corporation).
                                Cultural, royalty, and military titles can also be added.
                                        Examples:  Sir Lancelot, Lord Jim, Sergeant Miller, Lady Godiva, Duke X.
            Transportation
                        jeepney:  truck-et with rear twin benches beneath a roof for transporting passengers.  (Philippine islands)
                        rickshaw:  vehicle with passenger seat; 2 wheeled rickshaw is pulled by a man; 3 wheeled rickshaw pedaled by a man.  (Asia) 
                        trisikad:  a bicycle with a side-carriage that seats two passengers.  (Philippine islands)
                        truck-et:  a small truck divided into front passenger compartment and rear flat bed with sides.  English "pickup truck".
                        tuktuk:  motorized three-wheeled taxi.  (Thailand and Kampuchea)  (In Tagalog and Visayan, "tricycle", which in Peoplese is a 3-wheeled toy.)
 

Specific Word Uses / alphabetized

            afraid, fear:  apprehension caused by the presence or anticipation of danger.  It does not mean “reluctant” or “regretful” or “unfortunately”, as in English “I’m afraid your application has been denied.”
            Arab, a person of Arabian ethnicity. Arabian is the adjective; e.g. Arabian horses.  Arabic is the language.  Arabia is the region encompassing northern Africa, peninsula Arabia, and territory east of Mediterranean Sea populated mainly by Arabs.   
            as example.  English “for example”.  E.g. Oats, as example, is a type of grain.
            awake / wake.  In Peoplese, “awake” is used passively; e.g. “he was awaked by a siren, he awaked at noon”. 
                    “Wake” is an active verb; e.g. She waked me at noon.  Peoplese doesn’t use “wake up” (nor “wake down”).
                    “Awake” can be used figuratively; e.g. “He awaked to the danger around him.”
            bass-guitar has a lower pitch than a guitar.  Bass-guitarist.
            backward / rear۔ward.  “Rear-ward” refers to physical direction; it means “in the direction of rear”.  E.g. She drived her car rear-ward.  “Backward” means “less advanced”.  E.g. A backward economy is not realizing its potential.
            banknote:  a piece of paper, recognized as legal tender by a government, typically used in exchange for goods and services.
            bath∙room:  See “loo”.
            bazaar:  a street market, i.e. a section on a street or streets where vendors sell their goods.  Not only in Arabia - anywhere.
            beside / besides.  “Beside” means “next to”, as in “Can I sit beside you?”  “Besides” means “in addition to”.  E.g. Besides spinach, I love carrots.
            birth is a noun (“he was present at the birth”), an adjective (“her birth anniversary”), and a verb (“she birthed two babies”).
            booze:  any alcoholic drink.  English “alcohol”, which has additional meanings.
            certainty:  stronger than “belief”.  E.g.  He believes his partner is honest, he is certain that winter follows autumn.
            childs:  plural of “child”.  English “children”.  English “men, women, and children” is typically phrased in Peoplese as “childs, womans, mans. But in Peoplese, pleasant-sounding "children" is an acceptable synomym for "childs".
            character / charactor.  Use “character” to mean distinctive qualities of a person, as in, “She demonstrates good character.” 
                        A “charactor” refers to a person, as in, “The movie has eight charactors.”
            circular predicament:  a predicament from which it is impossible to extricate oneself because of intrinsic illogical rules or regulations.  English “catch-22”.
            close∙by / near∙by.  (In English, “nearby” is one word, but “close by” is two words; Peoplese uses mid-dots.)
            college:  an academic sub-division within a university.
            commute-time:  English “rush hour”, the morning and evening period (typically more than one hour) when many people commute to and from jobs.
            country:  a plant filled area, as opposed to city, town, village.  Not a synonym for "nation".
            deejay:  a person who plays pre-recorded music at a commercial or other gathering, or at a radio station.
            dis۔embark:  step off a passenger vehicle, e.g. a rickshaw, tuktuk, car, train, airplane, ship, etc.
            drama performance:  A performance by actors, usually in a theater.  English “drama”, “play”.
            dur / during.  Both are prepositions.  "dur" means "at some point within a period or event"  .E.g. Let's meet dur Saturday.  (English, ...on Saturday.)  E.g. She plan to visit dur March.  (English, ...in March.)  E.g. Dur 2013 she becomed 19 years old.  (English, ...in 2013.)  "during" means "throughout a period or event".  E.g. During the funeral, nobody cryed.  During March the weather warmed.  During New Years Eve we drinked too much booze.
            east ۔ward wind:  wind blowing east ۔ward.  English “west wind” is unclear.  Likewise, “south ۔ward wind”, etc.
            elderly:  respectful term for old people who prefer not to be called "old".
            elementary school:  used for school grades first through sixth.  English “primary school”.
            envy / jealousy.  “Envy” is a feeling of discontent, some-times mixed with begrudging admiration, with regard to another’s advantages, possessions, or attainments.  Envy need not be resentful or covetous, although it often is; envy can be a positive motivating force.  “Jealousy”:  suspicion or belief that one is being or might be displaced in some∙body’s affections; distrust of the fidelity of a spouse or lover.
            etcetera – use sparingly if at all; not abbreviated.  Three or more items in a series separated by commas with no “and” before the last item implies that more items exist.  E.g. Red, orange, yellow are colors of a rainbow.  (Because “and” is not inserted, the implication is that a rainbow has more than just those three colors.)  E.g. My friends’ names are Ani, Avi, and Chi-chi.  (Therefore I have only three friends, because “and” is inserted before the last item.)  There are no abbreviations in Peoplese.
            every∙place:  every single place, excepting none.  English “everywhere”.
            exam.  English “examination”.
            fiance:  a man engaged to be married.  fiancee:  a woman engaged to be married.
            flotation∙vest.  English “life jacket”.
            forever-lasting.  English “everlasting”.
            forward / front-ward.  “Front-ward”, the opposite of “rear-ward”, being a physical direction toward the front.  E.g. He drived front-ward.  By contrast, forward is used for non-directional matters.  E.g. I look forward to seeing you tomorrow.  The European Union moved forward on monetary union.
            fourty:  40.  English “forty” (senseless spelling, so why force children to memorize it?).
            function.  Not a synonym for English “work”.  E.g. I fixed the clock, so now it works. (English); I fixed the clock, so now it function (Peoplese).
            further / far-er.  "Far-er" is the compative word of "far", used exclusively for physical distance; English "farther".  "Further" refers the quality and/or extent of anything but physical distance. 
            get:  obtain.  In English “get” has at least 24 definitions besides “obtain” (get ready, get out, etc.), so “get” should be used sparingly in Peoplese.
            gift.  English “present”, which has another main meaning.
            grand∙transformation.  English “revolution”, a misnomer, because it does not return to a former position.
            grow is used only for living things.  So cities “expand” and/or “increase in population”, but do not “grow”.
            gungho.  English “gung ho” (two words).  Many two-words English combinations that make no sense (gung ho, of course, no matter, vice versa) are combined in Peoplese as a single word (gungho, ofcourse, nomatter, viceversa).  A list of such words is via the orange Learn Peoplese button, lower right on this page.
            hair.  When speaking of one hair, use singular; otherwise use plural.  How much would you pay for a "hair cut" (the cutting of one hair)?
            home∙town = the town where one’s current home is.  Similarly, home∙village, home∙city, home∙nation, home∙province, etc. 
                    “Native∙town”, etc.:  the town where one was born.
            home∙wife, home∙wifes, home∙husband, etc., replaces English “housewife”, etc.
            humorous.  English “funny”, a misnomer, as indicating a derivative of “fun”.
            husband-less mother.  English “single mother”.  “Wife۔less father”.
            i is not capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence.  English “I”.  (If anything, shouldn’t we capitalize “you”?)
            internet (not capitalized, not preceded by “the”).  English “the Internet”.
            island۔et:  a small island.  English “islet”.
            it.  Using “it” without an antecedent is acceptable, but is poor writing.  E.g., It is raining, therefore it would be better if we wait.  (Neither “it” in that sentence refers to anything.)
            its:  Not a Peoplese word.  In Peoplese, possessive of "it" is "it's".  Contraction of "it is" is "it∙is".
            keen:  enthusiastic about.  (Useful British English word.)  E.g. I'm keen to learn Peoplese.
            kid.  As a noun, it means child; also a young goat.  As a verb it means to fib or deceive in jest.  E.g., Don’t kid me.
            landslide:  a mass of land (soil, rocks, etc.) sliding down a mountain or hill.  Does not mean “overwhelming”. 
                    E.g., a landslide victory” (English) = an overwhelming victory (Peoplese).
            latest technology.  English “state of the art technology” (a misnomer; "art" has a completely different meaning).
            lastFinal of a series, none following; e.g. last in the queue, last cookie, last supper.   "Last" does not mean "recent۔est".  E.g. "Our recent۔est softball game was a disaster" (implying more softball games follow); "Our last softball games was a disaster" (implying no softball games follow, at least least for this softball season). The English statement "Muhammad was the last prophet" is ambiguous, with two possible meanings:  "No prophet will ever follow Muhammad" or "No prophet has yet followed Muhammad; he is the recent۔est prophet."
            latter:  relatively near the end of a time period.  E.g “latter 20th century (between ap 1985 and 1999), instead of English “late 20th century”.
            lay / lie.  Lay:  to put in place or to recline in a horizontal position; past tense, “lay۔d”.  Lie:  to knowingly state falsely; past tense, “lie۔d”.
            lest:  a negative particle of intention or purpose, introducing a subjunctive clause expressing something to be prevented or guarded against.  E.g. Do it now, lest you forget
            libertyright:  entitlement of freedom to do something.  English “right”, which has other meanings.
            limo.  English, “limousine”.
            linguafranca:  English “lingua franca” (two words).
            listen.  English "listen to" is Peoplese "listen", as in watch TV, listen music, hear birds, see house.  "Listen" and "watch" imply hearing and seeing something in progress; "hear" and "see" imply hearing and seeing something that is static, not moving.  E.g. Listen to a radio program, hear a strange noise; watch a ball game, see the house.
            live.  Not a synonym for “dwell” or “reside”.
            loo:  is a small room featuring a toilet, often but not necessarily with a wash∙basin.  
                    A “bath∙room” contains a bath∙tub and∙or bath∙shower, and usually but not necessarily a toilet and wash∙basin.
            intra-nation war.  A war within a nation.  English “civil war” , a misnomer (decidedly uncivil).
            lost:  (adjective) mislaid or unable to find one’s way.  The past tense and present perfect of “lose” is “lose۔d”.
            lovely:  not a word in Peoplese.  English, “lovely”, meaning “beautiful, pleasing, delightful” is a misnomer.
                    (English has so many meanings of “love” that its main meaning, in the sense Jesus indicated, is obscured.)
            malarkey:  insincere talk or writing.
            mangos:  plural of “mango”.  English, “mangoes”.  Peoplese has no irregular plurals.
            master, mastor.  “Mastor” (a noun) refers to somebody in control, e.g. a boss, an animal ownor.  “Master" (an adjective) means:  main, broadest, primary, principle, etc.  E.g. master plan, master switch, master bed∙room.
            meticulous:  exceeding careful (not excessively careful).  A positive, not a negative word.
            mud-brick house:  a house whose walls are constructed from bricks made from mud.
            nearly.  Used for physical distance; otherwise use "almost".
            none.  Use “none” for objects. For people, use “nobody”.
            not-for-profit organization.  English “non-profit organization”, “non-governmental organization”.
            oclock.  English “o’clock”.
            passed to sleep, lapsed into sleep, returned to sleep, etc.  English, “fall asleep”.
            per (used instead of English “a” when speaking of rate).  E.g., “five evenings per week” (not "a week")
            photo (noun and verb).  English “photograph”.  E.g. He photo۔d the house, but the photo was blurry.
            polkadot.  English “polka dot” (two words).
            prayer / pray۔or.  "Pray۔or" is somebody who prays, e.g. by reciting a prayer.
            pregnancy prevention.  English “birth control”.
            pub.  American English “bar”.  “Tavern” is used for an old-style British tavern.
            raised eves:  roof style in ancient China
            rear۔ward – see backward.
            shall - an auxiliary verb emphasizing that somthing will or ought to happen in the future.  Compare "will".
            schoolmarm:  a school teacher of either gender considered too proper and/or old-fashioned.
            shareholdor:  somebody who owns corporate shares (English stocks).  English "stockholder".
            sheeps herd۔ors.  English “sheepherder”.
            state:  condition, physical stage, form.  Not a synonym for “nation” or “province”.  E.g. As of year 2000, USA had 50 provinces.
            switch on / switch off.  Switch on or off an appliance or lamp, etc.  English “turn on, turn off”.
            ta / ta's:  a gender-neutral pronoun meaning "he or she".  The possessive form is "ta's".  E.g. The pilot was brave; therefore ta was not afraid.  The pronoun is also used for God and other spirits.  E.g. God is merciful; therefore ta did not punish them.  (Note:  "ta" is Mandarin Chinese, with the same meaning.  The absence of a gender-neutral singular pronoun in many languages encourages gender discrmination by forcing the speaker to choose either "he" or "she" or say or write again and again "he and/or she".  Using "he" or "He" as the pronoun for God is acceptable Peoplese, as for many people "God" is symbolic of the father.  Others may consider assigning a male pronoun to a spirit objectionable, nor would they want to substitute "he" with "it" (used for things), so they can use "ta", which is respectable.)
            teenyboppor:  a young teenager who follows the latest fads, e.g. in fashion, music.
            than i / than me --  In Peoplese, determining whether to use i or me after than depends on context.  “John likes Lucy better than i.” means that John likes Lucy better than i like Lucy.  “John likes Lucy better than me.” means that John likes Lucy better than John likes me.  By temporarily filling in the implied unvoiced or non-unwritten portion of the sentence (italicized), the choice of pronoun become obvious.  Similarly, the following two sentences have different meanings:  I like Pete better than Ana [likes Pete] and I like Pete better than [i like] Ana.   Other examples:  You are bigger than i [am].  He is taller than she [is].  For clarity, the words within the brackets (above) can optionally be articulated.
            that / which
                        Use “that” with restrictive clauses.  A restrictive clause is one that limits -- or restricts – the identity of the subject in some way.  It is introduced with the word “that” (or “who” if the subject is a person), with no comma.  Test:  If the restrictive clause is deleted, the sentence becomes incorrect.  E.g. “The coats that are hanging in the store window are not for sale.”  If we eliminate the clause, the resulting sentence, “The coats are not for sale” is incorrect.)  E.g. “The man who was standing by the door is a thief.”  (I.e. That man and no other is the thief.)
                        Use “which” with non-restrictive clauses. A non-restrictive clause inform us of some∙thing interesting or incidental about a subject – it serves merely as a dispensable adjective clause.  It is introduced by the word “which” (or “who” if the subject is human); a comma is required both before and after the clause.  Test:  If the non-restrictive clause is deleted, the sentence is still correct.  E.g.  The yellow-flowered dress, which was my favorite, was purchased this morning. This morning a customor, who was French, buyed the yellow-flowered dress.
            timed bomb.  English “time bomb”:  a bomb containing a timing device so that it will detonate at a specified time.
            trouser.  Because it’s a singular, it requires an article.  E.g. He wore a brown trouser and a white shirt.
            universal:  pertaining to what we know to be the universe.  English:  “global”, “national”, “for everybody”, etc.  They are clamouring for universal health care, but can they really afford health care for everybody in the universe?
            watch∙listen to television, listen∙watch a music concert.  Most important word first.
            will - An auxiliary very used to indicate (without emphasis) future time.  Compare "willpower".
            willpower - Mind-derived determination.  English "will".  E.g. It was not so much by ability than by willpower that he succeded.

           
vet.  English “veterinarian”.
           
yet.  Following a clause expressing negativity, "yet" signifies a positive.  E.g. He was old, yet healthy.


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