Instead of, “The sun rised” (scientifically false), better write, “Sun
appeared to rise”.
E.g., “At the end of year 2000, the population of Taiwan was ap 23
millions.” Not English, “…was 23 million.”)
Contractions -- In
Peoplese contractions are formed with mid-dots.
"don’t" = Peoplese do∙not; English "aren’t"
= Peoplese are∙not", etc.
Usage mainly depends on sound. For cadence, sentence flow,
Often used in
dialog, so the dialog
doesn’t sound stilted. In
English dialog, use to sound true-to-life.
Repeating an adjective adds emphasis. E.g. a high high
tree. (Better than “a very high tree”.)
languages such as Thai, Khmer and Filipino languages effectively use
Length of Words
general, the shorter the word the better, and the fewer syllables the
Maximum number of syllables allowed in Peoplese:
statements before, not after, making the statement.
Example: “He did not lie except to Ben” momentarily misleads the reader
or listener, who thinks he did not lie
and then realizes he did
actually some-times lie. Better: “Except to Ben, he did not
Intransitive Verbs. The English grammar
distinction is irrelevant in Peoplese.
In Peoplese any verb can have an
object, but objects are not required.
never had an accident, she reminded.”
Time: era, millennium, century, decade, year, month, week,
hour, minute, second.
7:31 p. m., 19:31, both refer to the
Length, distance: metric system.
format: day + month + year. E.g., 1-2-1995, 1/2/95,
1 Feb 1995, 30
CE (before common era and
common era) – see acronyms.
If neither BCE or CE is added after the
year, it is
assumed to be CE.
years (no comma)
numbers (commas after each 3 digits)
Number spelling: Spell out numbers zero and one through ten;
others use digital form.
E.g., All three friends were 24
Mathematical and scientific
at the beginning of a
sentence is spelled out. E.g., Sixteen years ago…
Numbers / usage:
three-meters tall tree (Not English, “three-meter tall tree”)
five-years-old child (Not English, “five-year-old
Forty-millions ants (not English, “40 million ants”). 21
thousands dollars (not English “21 thousand dollars”)
“dozen” not used except within dialog quote∙marks of English
speakors. Use “tens”.
compass, in sequence: north, north∙east, east∙north, east,
east∙south, south∙east, south, south∙west, west∙south, west,
west∙north, north∙west. I.e. east∙north is farther east than
east, south, west.
E.g. north is a noun only; northern is an adjective; e.g. the
northern gate (not English the north gate). North
۔ward means toward north; e.g. north۔ward
of the river (not English
north of the river). North∙east is either
exactly between north and east or more north than
east; east∙north is either exactly between north and east or more east
than north. Etc.
not use up or down for compass direction (as in English).
Europe is not "above" Africa; traveling "up" from Hong Kong is possible
in a hot-air balloon, but not on a train.
the gender of the animal is not known or is not important or relevant,
which is the general case, use “it” and “which”. When the
of the animal is known and is relevant or important (e.g. when speaking
of a lioness of a pet, or telling a story from the animal’s viewpoint),
use a gender pronoun (he, she, he∙she, etc.) and
“who”. Examples: Our dog Spot barks when he is
which slithered by near where Doris was sitting, disappeared into a
hole; it later re۔appeared.
Flocks of birds, herds of animals, swarms (not schools) of fishes,
swarms of bees.
“urinate” (liquid) and “poop” (solid) are the appropriate words for toilet
functions. But because the images they conjure up are not
pleasant, the words are used with discretion.
abaya: woman’s head-to-toe cloak-like garment, generally
including head scarf, veil with eye holes or eye slit, worn in public
by some Muslim women.
trouser: trousers or slacks which flare out at the
blouse: a feminine-appearing shirt, typically
burka: woman’s head-to-toe cloak-like garment worn in public
some Muslim women, more conservative than an abaya because
instead of a
slit for eyes there is a screen, hiding her eyes. Popular in
business∙suit: matching trousers and indoor jacket of
chador: Worn by Iranian
women in public, a full-body-length semi-circle of black fabric
covering the body and hair, with no hand openings, buttons, clasps,
etc., it is held together by her hands or tucked under her arms.
choli: blouse worn beneath a sari by women in south
g-string: a patch of cloth just large enough to cover
holded in place by a string around the waist and another below the
trunk of the body.
denim: the material jeans are made from. E.g. blue
dress: single-piece garment covering from neck to legs,
gown: fancy dress worn on formal occasions
jean: denim trousers originally worn by USA cowboys;
later: popular casual trouser. Singular.
jellabiya: robe-like cotton garment, ankle-length, with loose
sleeves, usually white in summer, worn by males in NE Africa.
worn by some Arab men, usually fashioned from a square cotton scarf
with a checkered pattern..
micro-skirt: shorter than a mini-skirt.
mini-skirt: skirt of short length, no lower than
necktie: cloth tied around the neck, loose in front for the
to jerk on. Signifies subservience.
night-gown: one-piece bed-time garment, not usually cinched
pajama (singular): two piece bed-time garment,
males and females.
pant: singular; each person normally wears one pant at a time
panty (singular): scanty under-pant, considered
worn at a time.
robe: a long loose outer garment
sari: south Asian women's traditional garment consisting of a
rectangle of fabric reaching the feet,
wrapped and pleated around the
waist over an under-skirt and short-sleeved fitted top choli, and
draped over one shoulder.
shirt: generic term for garment covering from shoulders to
short-trouser: English shorts.
skirt: legless garment weared from waist downward by women
trouser: outer garment covering from waist to ankles,
worn by men.
is singular; a
man normally wears only one trouser at a time.
T-shirt: a simple, usually cotton, usually relatively cheap,
short-sleeve shirt without frills.
under-pant (singular): worn beneath trousers and
Only one worn at a time.
under-clothes: clothes worn beneath outer clothes.
Curse substitute words.
If you drop something breakable and feel the need to exclaim your
reaction, “darn”. If your mistake is inconsequential (you drop
your pen), "oops". “Gosh” is handy if you hear unpleasant
news; "golly" if you hear pleasant news. "Gee" expresses
Curse words. If you must
curse, “shit” (which stinks) is
acceptable except around children or others who might consider the word
offensive. Using “God” as a curse
seriously offends many religious people, and automatically categorizes
the speaker as either ignorant or insensitive and of base character.
Embryo: from the fertilized egg to when the pre-born form
resembles a newborn of its species (in humans, about 8 weeks after
conception). The subsequent fetal stage is characterized by
increased growth and development of the organ systems, and ends at
drawerstack: a low
cabinet consisting of a set of drawers, usually for storing clothes.
(English, "chest of drawers".)
wardrobe: a tall free-standing cabinet for storing clothes.
Gender / age
laddy (affectionate word
for lad): a boy or un-married young man.
lassy (affectionate word
for lass): a girl or un-married young woman.
child: a girl (too young to birth a baby) or a boy (too young
impregnate a woman).
teenagort, teenagorm: youngsters between ages 12 and 20 years old.
a woman, with the connotation of dignified, well-behaved,
a young woman
a young man
galfriend: a woman with whom one has a romantic relationship.
English 'girlfriend". A "girl" is a child.
guyfriend : a man with whom one has a romantic
relationship. English "boyfriend".
man, woman: refer to mature adults, with no romantic or sexual
friend, woman friend: (no hyphen or mid-dot), used for just friendships.
cities and towns:
boulevard: a broad avenue including a strip of park (grass,
flowerbeds, trees, walkways).
avenue: a wide street that is
street: in a city, a public thoroughfare
for vehicles, usually paved, usually with side∙walks.
lane: in a city, a short narrow street.
alley: in a city, a narrow passage∙way between the rears or
In the country:
throughway: a thoroughfare which charges tolls.
throughway: an expressway with a dividor strip of land
lanes of vehicles moving in opposite directions, accessible only by on-
and off-ramps, with no traffic signal lights, providing a relatively
safe means of high-speed vehicle traffic, usually limited to cars,
between distant places.
expressway: a paved country
between distant places allowing for vehicle traffic typically at higher
speeds than roads, usually with intersections marked by traffic signal
lights. (English “highway”, a misnomer.)
countryside, a long
route, paved or unpaved, usually wide enough to accommodate vehicles
lane: in the country, a short
narrow passage∙way, often between hedges, fences, yards.
terrorist: a person who uses non-military violence against civilians in
an attempt to further a political purpose. Also terrorism.
(But attacks on civilians by conventional military forces are no less
guerrilla: a member of a non-regular military unit fighting a
pentatonic scale: the common 5-notes scale, used e.g. in most
blues music. (penta means 5 in Greek.)
heptatonic scale: the common 7-notes
scale, used e.g. in most European classic music. (hepta
means 7 in Greek.)
(English “octave” is confusing: 1 octave has 8 notes, 2
have 15 notes.)
Race and ethnicity
classifications (descriptive, not offensive,
4 surviving races: Amerindian (American Indian), Caucasian,
Oriental (Chinese, Japanese, Korean), Negro.
creole: a person of African ancestry born in the American
mestizo: a person of mixed races. E.g. Caucasian and
mulatto: Caucasian and Negro mix.
(These words, which should not be considered offensive, fill a need for
a decent way for consenting adults to
ambisexual: attracted to both genders. (English,
bayot: male homosexual
(noun and adjective). (English "gay".) (From Visayan, a
central Philippines language.)
blowjob: suck cock
boner: erect penis
boobs: women’s breasts, with a sexual connotation.
chickens, etc., also have breasts.
boomboom: penis-vagina sexual union accompanied by mutual
friendliness, romance, and/or love.
A Thai and Filipino word. (English “make love”
is usually a misnomer.)
boomboom-less sex: sexual activity without sexual union.
butt: buttocks. 2 buttocks = 1 butt.
English “ass” is
not a Peoplese word; the animal is "donkey".
butterfly: somebody (typically a man) who habitually switches
partners. Also a flying insect.
buxom: full-bosomed; large female breasts. Not
with a sexual connotation.
cock: penis, with a sexual connotation.
dyke: an obviously
masculine homosexual woman.
foreplay: pre-boomboom sex.
fornicate: fuck or boomboom outside of marriage.
fuck: penis-vagina sexual union without love or romance, as
during rape or by animals.
Men can either boomboom or fuck
their wives), depending on the level of warmth. Noun
English “intercourse” is not a sexual
fuckor: someone who fucks.
fuckee: someone who is fucked.
gender: a division of life forms (including people) into male
female. English “sex”.
homosexual: a man or woman sexually attracted to his or her same
gender. In Peoplese, “gay” means “merry”.
horny: feeling of intense need for sexual action. A
temporary condition, like “hungry”.
ladyboy: an obviously
effeminate homosexual male.
liaison: secret, romantic, sexual relationship
non-married man and woman.
pussy: tongue massage of interior of partner's vagina.
lesbian: a female homosexual; a woman sexually attracted to
lustful: strong desire to engage in sex. A
oral∙sex: mouth-to-genital sexual activity.
nude: “naked”, with a sexual connotation. Babies can
pussy: “vagina”, with a sexual connotation. All
mammals have vaginas.
a synonym for "gender".
sex∙life: those aspects of a person’s life relating to sexual
sodomy: penis-into-anus sex
cock: suck erect penis
transvestite: somebody who adopts the dress and often the
behavior of the other gender
yumyum: suck cock (Thai and Khmer English)
the Peoplese spelling Islam’s holy book. (In English,
“Qu’ran”, “Quran”, “Koran”.)
“soccer”. The ball itself is designated by “football ball”.
ovalball: American English "football" (a
misnomer) played with an oval-shape ball.
sports: basketball, tennis, field hockey, ice hockey,
President: used only
fairly elected head of a democratic government. E.g.
President Abe Lincoln.
Ministor: used only
for fairly elected head of a parliamentary-style democratic
Senator: used only
fairly elected legislator of a Senate, whether national or provincial.
۔woman: used only
for people fairly elected to a
King: a male monarch.
Also: Queen, Prince, Princess. E.g. King Henry,
(not capitalized; a
designation, not a title): applies to any national leader who
neither a monarch nor fairly elected.
(not capitalized, a
designation, not a title). A tyrannical dictator.
titles (capitalized; used without abbreviations)
(for a dentist).
E.g. Dentist Sapperstein.
doctor): E.g. Doctor Tracey Rhodes.
(for Ph. D.
graduate): E.g. Doctorate Puff Sunpath Moore.
Miss (for an unmarried woman)
(for a married woman)
Miz (for a
woman without distinction
between married or unmarried).
(for men, married or
professor). E.g. Professor Chang.
Designations of lower-level
professions and careers are not capitalized:
e.g. plumbor Heinz, lawyer Reed, teachor Lee (of
middle-school), president Clark (of a corporation).
royalty, and military
titles can also be added.
Examples: Sir Lancelot, Lord
Miller, Lady Godiva, Duke X.
jeepney: truck-et with rear twin benches beneath a roof for
passengers. (Philippine islands)
rickshaw: vehicle with
passenger seat; 2 wheeled rickshaw is pulled by a man; 3 wheeled
pedaled by a man. (Asia)
trisikad: a bicycle with
a side-carriage that seats two passengers.
truck-et: a small truck divided into
front passenger compartment and rear flat bed with sides. English
tuktuk: motorized three-wheeled taxi.
(Thailand and Kampuchea) (In Tagalog and Visayan, "tricycle",
which in Peoplese
is a 3-wheeled toy.)
Word Uses / alphabetized
apprehension caused by the presence or anticipation
of danger. It does not mean “reluctant” or “regretful” or
“unfortunately”, as in English “I’m afraid your application has been
a person of Arabian ethnicity. Arabian
is the adjective; e.g. Arabian horses. Arabic is the language. Arabia
is the region encompassing northern Africa, peninsula Arabia, and
territory east of Mediterranean Sea populated mainly by Arabs.
example”. E.g. Oats, as example, is a type of grain.
awake / wake.
In Peoplese, “awake” is used
“he was awaked by a siren, he awaked at noon”.
“Wake” is an
active verb; e.g. She waked me at noon. Peoplese doesn’t use
“wake up” (nor “wake down”).
“Awake” can be used figuratively;
e.g. “He awaked to the danger around him.”
has a lower pitch than a guitar. Bass-guitarist.
“Rear-ward” refers to physical direction; it means “in the direction of
rear”. E.g. She drived her car rear-ward. “Backward”
means “less advanced”. E.g. A backward economy is not realizing
a piece of paper, recognized as legal tender by a
government, typically used in exchange for goods and services.
i.e. a section on a street or streets where vendors sell their goods.
Not only in Arabia - anywhere.
beside / besides.
“Beside” means “next to”, as in “Can I
beside you?” “Besides” means “in addition to”. E.g.
spinach, I love carrots.
is a noun (“he was present at the birth”), an adjective (“her
birth anniversary”), and a verb (“she birthed two babies”).
drink. English “alcohol”, which has additional meanings.
stronger than “belief”. E.g. He believes
his partner is honest, he is certain that winter follows autumn.
plural of “child”. English “children”.
English “men, women, and children” is typically phrased in Peoplese as
“childs, womans, mans. But in Peoplese, pleasant-sounding "children" is
an acceptable synomym for "childs".
charactor. Use “character” to mean distinctive
qualities of a person, as in, “She demonstrates good
“charactor” refers to a person,
as in, “The movie has eight
a predicament from which it is impossible
to extricate oneself because of intrinsic illogical rules or
regulations. English “catch-22”.
close∙by / near∙by.
(In English, “nearby” is one word, but “close
by” is two words; Peoplese uses mid-dots.)
an academic sub-division within a university.
English “rush hour”, the morning and evening period
(typically more than one hour) when many people commute to and from
a plant filled area, as opposed to city, town, village. Not a synonym for "nation".
a person who plays pre-recorded music at a commercial or
other gathering, or at a radio station.
step off a passenger vehicle, e.g. a rickshaw, tuktuk, car, train,
airplane, ship, etc.
A performance by actors, usually in a
theater. English “drama”, “play”.
dur / during. Both are
means "at some point within a period or event" .E.g. Let's meet
dur Saturday. (English, ...on Saturday.) E.g. She plan to
visit dur March. (English, ...in March.) E.g. Dur 2013 she
becomed 19 years old. (English, ...in 2013.) "during"
means "throughout a period or event". E.g. During the funeral,
nobody cryed. During March the weather warmed. During New
Years Eve we drinked too much booze.
east ۔ward wind:
wind blowing east ۔ward.
English “west wind” is unclear. Likewise, “south
۔ward wind”, etc.
respectful term for old people who prefer not to be called "old".
school grades first through sixth. English “primary school”.
envy / jealousy.
“Envy” is a feeling of
mixed with begrudging admiration, with regard to another’s advantages,
possessions, or attainments. Envy need not be resentful or
covetous, although it often is; envy can be a positive motivating
force. “Jealousy”: suspicion or belief that one is
might be displaced in some∙body’s affections; distrust of the fidelity
of a spouse or lover.
– use sparingly if at all; not abbreviated. Three or
more items in a series separated by commas with no “and” before the
last item implies that more items exist. E.g. Red, orange,
are colors of a rainbow. (Because “and” is not inserted, the
implication is that a rainbow has more than just those three
colors.) E.g. My friends’ names are Ani, Avi, and
(Therefore I have only three friends, because “and” is inserted before
the last item.) There are no abbreviations in Peoplese.
place, excepting none. English “everywhere”.
a man engaged to be married. fiancee:
engaged to be married.
English “life jacket”.
forward / front-ward.
“Front-ward”, the opposite of “rear-ward”,
being a physical direction toward the front. E.g. He drived
front-ward. By contrast, forward is used for non-directional
matters. E.g. I look forward to seeing you
European Union moved forward on monetary union.
40. English “forty” (senseless spelling, so why force children to
Not a synonym for English “work”. E.g. I fixed
the clock, so now it works. (English); I fixed the clock, so
it function (Peoplese).
further / far-er.
"Far-er" is the compative word of "far", used exclusively for
distance; English "farther". "Further" refers the quality and/or
extent of anything but physical distance.
obtain. In English “get” has at least 24 definitions
besides “obtain” (get ready, get out, etc.), so “get” should be used
sparingly in Peoplese.
English “present”, which has another main meaning.
English “revolution”, a misnomer, because it does not return to a
is used only for living things. So cities “expand” and/or
“increase in population”, but do not “grow”.
English “gung ho” (two words). Many two-words English
combinations that make no sense (gung ho, of course, no matter, vice
versa) are combined in Peoplese as a single word (gungho, ofcourse,
nomatter, viceversa). A list of such words is via the orange
Learn Peoplese button, lower right on this page.
hair. When speaking
of one hair, use singular; otherwise use plural. How much would
you pay for a "hair cut" (the cutting of one hair)?
= the town where one’s current home is. Similarly,
home∙village, home∙city, home∙nation, home∙province, etc.
“Native∙town”, etc.: the town
where one was
home∙wifes, home∙husband, etc., replaces English
English “funny”, a misnomer, as indicating a derivative
English “single mother”. “Wife۔less
not capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence. English
“I”. (If anything,
(not capitalized, not preceded by “the”). English “the
a small island. English “islet”.
Using “it” without an antecedent is acceptable, but is poor
It is raining, therefore it would be better if we wait.
“it” in that sentence refers to anything.)
its: Not a Peoplese
word. In Peoplese, possessive of "it" is "it's".
Contraction of "it is" is "it∙is".
enthusiastic about. (Useful British English word.) E.g. I'm
keen to learn Peoplese.
As a noun, it means child; also a young goat. As a verb it means
or deceive in jest. E.g., Don’t kid me.
a mass of land (soil, rocks, etc.) sliding down a
mountain or hill. Does not mean “overwhelming”.
landslide victory” (English) = an overwhelming victory
English “state of the art technology” (a misnomer; "art" has a
completely different meaning).
last: Final of a
series, none following; e.g. last in the queue, last cookie, last
supper. "Last" does not mean "recent۔est".
E.g. "Our recent۔est softball game was a
disaster" (implying more softball games follow); "Our last softball
games was a disaster" (implying no softball games follow, at least
least for this softball season). The English statement "Muhammad was the last prophet" is ambiguous, with
two possible meanings: "No prophet will ever follow Muhammad" or
"No prophet has yet followed Muhammad; he is the recent۔est
relatively near the end of a time period. E.g
“latter 20th century (between ap 1985 and 1999), instead of English
“late 20th century”.
lie. Lay: to put in place or to
recline in a horizontal
position; past tense, “lay۔d”. Lie: to knowingly
falsely; past tense, “lie۔d”.
a negative particle of intention or purpose, introducing a
subjunctive clause expressing something to be prevented or guarded
against. E.g. Do it now, lest you forget
entitlement of freedom to do something.
English “right”, which has other meanings.
English “lingua franca” (two words).
English "listen to" is Peoplese "listen", as in watch TV,
listen music, hear birds, see house. "Listen" and "watch" imply
hearing and seeing something in progress; "hear" and "see" imply
hearing and seeing something that is static, not moving. E.g.
Listen to a radio program, hear a strange noise; watch a ball game, see
Not a synonym for “dwell” or “reside”.
is a small room featuring a toilet, often but not necessarily
with a wash∙basin.
A “bath∙room” contains a bath∙tub and∙or
bath∙shower, and usually but not necessarily a toilet and wash∙basin.
A war within a nation. English “civil war” , a misnomer (decidedly
(adjective) mislaid or unable to find one’s way. The past tense
and present perfect of “lose” is “lose۔d”.
not a word in Peoplese. English, “lovely”, meaning
“beautiful, pleasing, delightful” is a misnomer.
(English has so
many meanings of “love” that its main meaning, in the sense Jesus
indicated, is obscured.)
insincere talk or writing.
plural of “mango”. English, “mangoes”. Peoplese has no irregular plurals.
mastor. “Mastor” (a noun) refers to somebody in
e.g. a boss, an animal ownor. “Master" (an adjective) means:
main, broadest, primary, principle, etc. E.g. master plan,
switch, master bed∙room.
meticulous: exceeding careful (not excessively careful). A positive, not a negative word.
house: a house whose walls are
constructed from bricks made from mud.
Used for physical distance; otherwise use "almost".
Use “none” for objects. For people, use “nobody”.
organization. English “non-profit organization”,
passed to sleep,
lapsed into sleep, returned to sleep,
English, “fall asleep”.
(used instead of English “a” when speaking of rate). E.g., “five evenings per week” (not "a week")
(noun and verb). English “photograph”. E.g. He
photo۔d the house, but the photo was blurry.
English “polka dot” (two words).
prayer / pray۔or.
"Pray۔or" is somebody who prays, e.g. by reciting a prayer.
prevention. English “birth control”.
American English “bar”. “Tavern” is used for an
old-style British tavern.
roof style in ancient China
– see backward.
shall - an auxiliary verb
emphasizing that somthing will or ought to happen in the future.
schoolmarm: a school teacher of either gender considered too proper and/or old-fashioned.
somebody who owns corporate shares (English
stocks). English "stockholder".
condition, physical stage, form. Not a synonym for
“nation” or “province”. E.g. As of year 2000, USA had 50
switch on / switch
off. Switch on or off an appliance or lamp,
etc. English “turn on, turn off”.
ta / ta's:
a gender-neutral pronoun meaning "he or she". The possessive form
is "ta's". E.g. The pilot was brave; therefore ta was not
afraid. The pronoun is also used for God and other spirits.
E.g. God is merciful; therefore ta did not punish them.
(Note: "ta" is Mandarin Chinese, with the same meaning. The absence of a
gender-neutral singular pronoun in many languages encourages gender
discrmination by forcing the speaker to choose either "he" or "she" or
say or write again and again "he and/or she". Using "he" or "He"
as the pronoun for God is acceptable Peoplese, as for many people "God"
is symbolic of the father. Others may consider assigning a male
pronoun to a spirit objectionable, nor would they want to substitute
"he" with "it" (used for things), so they can use "ta", which is
a young teenager who follows the latest fads, e.g.
in fashion, music.
i / than me -- In Peoplese, determining whether
i or me after than depends on context. “John likes Lucy
than i.” means that John likes Lucy better than i like Lucy.
“John likes Lucy better than me.” means that John likes Lucy better
than John likes me.
By temporarily filling in the implied unvoiced or non-unwritten portion
of the sentence (italicized), the choice of pronoun become
obvious. Similarly, the following two sentences have
meanings: I like Pete better than Ana [likes Pete]
and I like Pete better than [i like]
Ana. Other examples: You are bigger than
i [am]. He is taller than she
[is]. For clarity, the words within the brackets
(above) can optionally be articulated.
that / which
“that” with restrictive clauses. A restrictive clause is one
limits -- or restricts – the identity of the subject in some
It is introduced with the word “that” (or “who” if the subject is a
person), with no comma. Test: If the restrictive
deleted, the sentence becomes incorrect. E.g. “The
that are hanging in the store window are not for sale.” If we
eliminate the clause, the resulting sentence, “The coats are not for
sale” is incorrect.) E.g. “The man who was standing by the
is a thief.” (I.e. That man and no other is the thief.)
“which” with non-restrictive clauses. A non-restrictive clause inform
us of some∙thing interesting or incidental about a subject – it serves
merely as a dispensable adjective clause. It is introduced
the word “which” (or “who” if the subject is human); a comma is
required both before and after the clause. Test: If
non-restrictive clause is deleted, the sentence is still correct.
E.g. The yellow-flowered dress, which was my
purchased this morning. This morning a customor, who was French, buyed
the yellow-flowered dress.
timed bomb. English “time bomb”: a
bomb containing a timing
device so that it will detonate at a specified time.
Because it’s a singular, it requires an article.
E.g. He wore a brown trouser and a white shirt.
pertaining to what we know to be the universe.
English: “global”, “national”, “for everybody”, etc. They
are clamouring for universal health care, but can they really afford
health care for everybody in the universe?
to television, listen∙watch
a music concert. Most important word first.
- An auxiliary very used to indicate (without emphasis) future time.
- Mind-derived determination. English "will". E.g. It was
not so much by ability than by willpower that he succeded.
yet. Following a clause expressing negativity, "yet" signifies a positive. E.g. He was old, yet healthy.