( ’ )
Ex: horse’s tail. All the horses’ saddles.
Note: English “o’clock” is
Peoplese “oclock”. The possessive of "it" is: it's.
Ex: The dog wag۔d it's tail.
For contractions, Peoplese
uses mid-dots, not apostrophes. Ex: it·iz
Asterisk ( * )
An asterisk added to the end of a
word alerts the reader to refer to the bottom of the page for an
A single centerally located asterisk in
a blank line between paragraphs, signifying a change of subject matter.
Two centered asterisks side by
side at the
end of a paragraph indicate a bigger division.
Three centered asterisks could
end of the article or story, or an even bigger division.
Brackets are an intrusion within a
sentence. Often they clarify somebody else's quotation.
Ex: The witness say۔d,
'I dint see he [the suspect] do anything wrong."
(The witness didn't say "the
suspect"; the writer quoting the witness added those two words.)
Ex: In her testimoney she write۔d,
"I never say۔d
nothing [sic] about that."
brackets indicates that the grammar mistake was a made by the
originator of the quotation,
not by the
person quoting her.
Outside of sentences, brackets can have
various other uses.
Generally, they refer to
something outside of the main topic.
Colon ( : )
Divides distinct but related
sentence components such as clauses in which the second elaborates on
Indicates that a list follows the
colon. Ex: The flag have three colors: red, green,
Used for emphasis: Ex: My
me my test score: an A.
When designating time, a colon
separates hours from minutes. E.g. 4:30 means 4 o’clock plus 30
(Note: The word after a
colon is not generally capitalized unless it is a proper noun.
After colon, leave 2 spaces.)
Comma ( , )
natural pauses. Ex: around parenthetic expressions, etc.
Three-word prepositional phrases at the beginning of a sentence aren’t
normally followed by a comma.
the beginning I believed him. (No comma after “beginning".)
After each item in a series.
Use “and” before the last item only if there are no other items in that
series, i.e. only if series is complete.
Ex: A, B, and C are the first three
letters of the Roman alphabet.
If the series is not complete, omit “and”.
Ex: A, B, C are letters of the Roman
alphabet. Because “and” is omitted, other letters exist.
(English: A, B, C,
etc., are letters of the Roman alphabet.)
Ex: He’s tired, hungry,
thirsty. Implied: and that’s not all. (He may also be
introduce a quotation. E.g. He asked, “Which way?”
independent clauses, a comma is placed before the conjunction.
Ex: The train wuz crowd۔d, and we had no place to put our luggage.
introductory adverb. Ex: Financial۔ly, they iz okay.
To separate adnouns
to avoid confusion.
commas are not required between adnouns.
Ex: the busy noisy
street. Ex: the
cute blond baby
sometimes inserting a comma between adnouns avoids confusion.
World War Two pogroms wuz common.
“Two”, the reader’s first impression, or a careless reading,
be that during a world war, two pogroms occurred.)
Within numbers: after each three figures of a number. E.g.
2,026 apples, 1,400,000,000 population.
Year dates have no comma, which distinguishing them from
numbers. E.g. year 2026.
Commas are not inserted
when designating a day in a month in a year.
Ex: Iz 17
February 2029 a Friday?:
maintain smooth reading experience, a comma can be inserted anywhere.
If the reader must stop and
puzzle, the sentence needs improvement.
Dash ( – ) A dash looks like a long hyphen.
dash separates a clause within a sentence more abruptly than a comma.
Ex: Bob is at the door – not again!
Exclamation mark ( ! )
exclamation-mark at the end of a word, phrase, or sentence Indicates
Ex: Wow! Peoplese is really quick and easy to learn!
An exclamation and
question mark may be combined. Ex: You quit your
job?! Or: You quit your job!?
The most important of the two
marks is put first.
Hyphen ( - )
Hyphens are used after a
syllable of a word that is divided at the end of a line of text.
Hyphens are used as minus signs
before numbers. Ex: -12
Hyphens separate two-digit numbers when they are spelled using two
words. Ex: sixty-four.
Hyphens are sometimes used when transliterating words from other
Hyphens can be
used to separate two words that belong together. Ex:
differences between hyphens, hyphnettes, and dashes.).
Hyphenette ( ۔
) A hyphenette is a half-length hyphen placed within a word.
based on root-words, whose spelling never changes, and to which are
added prefixes and
suffixes - both separated from
the root word by a hyphnette.
Ex: re۔do, un۔lawful,
pleasure۔able, happy۔ness, truck۔ful, anger۔ly, explain۔d, tell۔ing, sell۔d,
harm۔less, .giant۔size, Mars۔ward, health۔y, fool۔proof, farm۔or, pre۔pay, non۔combatant.
prefix and suffix has a unique meaning. Any prefix or suffix can
be added to any root-word.
At the top of Grammar page, links refer to complete lists
and their explanations.
Italics are used for
words which are not Peoplese.
Peoplese "dejavu" is adopt۔d from France۔ese déjà vu.
Ex: Art! Arf! bark۔d
the dog. The sack fall۔d
with a loud thump.
But foreign words that are proper nouns (and thus
capitalized) are not italicized.
Ex: Dao religion.
Mid-dot ( ∙ ) A mid-dot is a
raised period, placed within a Peoplese word.
separates words whose combined meaning is immediately recognizable as
the combination of its
words, both or all of which retain their original meanings.
mid-dot words require no, explanation, and are super-easy to
If you know the
meaning of the two component words, you know the meaning of the mid-dot
more examples of mid-dot words are accessible from the list atop the
many hundreds of mid-dot words - greatly limiting memorization, a big
time-saver for students.
A mid-dot can be
typed be pressing alt-m on a keyboard. For instructions, see FAQ,
accessible atop the home page.
interrupt a sentence by providing a clarifying explanation.
Ex: Jose Sanchez and Maria (his
new wife) will be our new neighbors.
Period ( . )
A period is
required after declrative sentences to indicate a full stop.
After each sentence, leave two blank spaces.
A period is
also required after an abbreviation, followed by a single blank space.
Question mark ( ? )
A question-mark at
the end of a sentence indicates a question.
Quote Marks ( "
Double-quote∙marks ( “...”
titles of articles, short stories, songs, poems – in which the main
words are capitalized.
highlighting words within a sentence. Ex: She pronounced
word “cake” correctly.
Single∙quote∙marks (‘ ...’ )
quotes within quotes. E.g. “I asked him, 'How much?’”
thoughts. E.g., ‘I’ll never go,’ she decided.
Note: Placement of
quote∙marks is logical (using the British, not American system):
E.g. It’s hard to pronounce ‘rhythm’. [Not American
English, It’s hard to pronounce `rhythm.’ ]
Semi-colon ( ; )
Two related sentences
can be combined into a single sentence separated by a semicolon.
we have four dogs; the one you see۔d
yesterday iz the small۔est.
above could be separated into two sentences, but not as smoothly.
Semi-colons are also used
to separate long items in a series, when those items contain commas.
commas to separate items containing commas would be too confusing.)
Ex: Awards wuz give۔t
to Maria, in the photo wear۔ing
a red dress; Lucia, wear۔ing
and Rosa, wear۔ing a white gown.
When linking two related
Ex: “I dont like
chocolate,” she say۔d, push۔ing
the box away; “too sweet.”
Underline is used to
emphasize a word or words. Ex: Please stop? Do you really want to go now?
(Unlike italics, underlining is handy for
handwritten notes, letters, etc.)
Book titles are also