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QUANTITY  (see below)


Apostrophe  ( ’ )
       Possession.  Ex: horse’s tail.  All the horses’ saddles.
       Note:  English “o’clock” is Peoplese “oclock”.  The possessive of "it" is:  it's.  Ex:  The dog wag۔d it's tail.
       For contractions, Peoplese uses  mid-dots, not apostrophes.  Ex:  it

Asterisk  ( * )
       An asterisk added to the end of a word alerts the reader to refer to the bottom of the page for an explanation.
       A single centerally located asterisk in a blank line between paragraphs, signifying a change of subject matter.
       Two centered asterisks side by side at the end of a paragraph indicate a bigger division.
       Three centered asterisks could indicate the end of the article or story, or an even bigger division.

Brackets  [  ]
       Brackets are an intrusion within a sentence.  Often they clarify somebody else's quotation.
              Ex:  The witness say۔d, 'I dint see he [the suspect] do anything wrong."
                         (The witness didn't say "the suspect"; the writer quoting the witness added those two words.)
              Ex:  In her testimoney she write۔d, "I never say۔d nothing [sic] about that."
                         "sic" in brackets indicates that the grammar mistake was a made by the originator of the quotation,
                                    not by the person quoting her.
       Outside of sentences, brackets can have various other uses.
                     Generally, they refer to something outside of the main topic. 

Colon  ( : )
       Divides distinct but related sentence components such as clauses in which the second elaborates on the first.
       Indicates that a list follows the colon.  Ex:  The flag have three colors:  red, green, and black.
       Used for emphasis:  Ex:  My teachor tell۔d me my test score:  an A.
       When designating time, a colon separates hours from minutes.  E.g. 4:30 means 4 o’clock plus 30 minutes.
       (Note:  The word after a colon is not generally capitalized unless it is a proper noun.  After colon, leave 2 spaces.)

Comma  ( , )
            For natural pauses.  Ex:  around parenthetic expressions, etc.
                   Three-word prepositional phrases at the beginning of a sentence aren’t normally followed by a comma.
                               Ex:. In the beginning I believed him.  (No comma after “beginning".)
            For clarity.
            After each item in a series.
                   Use “and” before the last item only if there are no other items in that series, i.e. only if series is complete.
                         Ex:  A, B, and C are the first three letters of the Roman alphabet.
                   If the series is not complete, omit “and”.
                         Ex:  A, B, C are letters of the Roman alphabet.  Because “and” is omitted, other letters exist.
                                   (English:  A, B, C, etc., are letters of the Roman alphabet.)
                         Ex:  He’s tired, hungry, thirsty.  Implied:  and that’s not all.  (He may also be irritable.)
             To introduce a quotation.  E.g.  He asked, “Which way?”
             Between two independent clauses, a comma is placed before the conjunction.
                         Ex:  The train wuz crowd
۔d, and we had no place to put our luggage.
             After an introductory adverb.  Ex:  Financial
۔ly, they iz okay.
             To separate adnouns to avoid confusion.
                          Generally, commas are not required between adnouns.
                                   Ex:  the busy noisy street.  Ex:  the cute blond baby
                          However, sometimes inserting a comma between adnouns avoids confusion.
Dur World War Two pogroms wuz common.
                                            (Without a comma, after “Two”, the reader’s first impression, or a careless reading,
                                                     could be that during a world war, two pogroms occurred.)

             Within numbers:  after each three figures of a number.  E.g. 2,026 apples, 1,400,000,000 population.
                         Year dates have no comma, which distinguishing them from numbers.  E.g. year 2026.
             Commas are not inserted when designating a day in a month in a year.
                                    Ex:  Iz
17 February 2029 a Friday?: 
             Generally, to maintain smooth reading experience, a comma can be inserted anywhere.
                         If the reader must stop and puzzle, the sentence needs improvement. 

Dash ( – )  A dash looks like a long hyphen.
            A dash separates a clause within a sentence more abruptly than a comma.
                         Ex:  Bob is at the door – not again!

Exclamation mark  ( ! )
            An exclamation-mark at the end of a word, phrase, or sentence Indicates an exclamation.
                         Ex:  Wow!  Peoplese is really quick and easy to learn!
            An exclamation and question mark may be combined.  Ex:  You quit your job?!  Or:  You quit your job!?
                         The most important of the two marks is put first.

Hyphen  ( - )
            Hyphens are used after a syllable of a word that is divided at the end of a line of text.
            Hyphens are used as minus signs before numbers.  Ex:  -12 (minus twelve)

            Hyphens separate two-digit numbers when they are spelled using two words.  Ex:  sixty-four.
            Hyphens are sometimes used when transliterating words from other languages.
            Hyphens can be used to separate two words that belong together.  Ex:  verb-object, mid-dot
            (Note differences between hyphens, hyphnettes, and dashes.).

Hyphenette  (  ۔  )  A hyphenette is a half-length hyphen placed within a word.
            Peoplese is based on root-words, whose spelling never changes, and to which are added prefixes and
                    suffixes - both separated from the root word by a hyphnette.
                        Ex:  re۔do, un۔lawful, pleasure۔able, happy۔ness, truck۔ful, anger۔ly, explain۔d, tell۔ing, sell۔d,  kilo۔meter,
۔less, .giant۔size, Mars۔ward, health۔y, fool۔proof, farm۔or, pre۔pay, non۔combatant.
                   Each prefix and suffix has a unique meaning.  Any prefix or suffix can be added to any root-word.
                   At the top of Grammar page, links refer to complete lists of prefixes and suffixes and their explanations.

           Italics are used for words which are not Peoplese.
                        Ex:  Peoplese "dejavu" is adopt
۔d from France۔ese déjà vu.
                        Ex:  Art!  Arf! bark
۔d the dog.  The sack fall۔d with a loud thump.
           But foreign words that are proper nouns (and thus capitalized) are not italicized.
                        Ex:  Dao religion.  Shanghai.

Mid-dot  ( ∙ )    A mid-dot is a raised period, placed within a Peoplese word.
            A mid∙dot separates words whose combined meaning is immediately recognizable as the combination of its
                        component words, both or all of which retain their original meanings.
            Therefore, mid-dot words require  no, explanation, and are super-easy to memorize.
                       If you know the meaning of the two component words, you know the meaning of the mid-dot word.
                       Ex:  wrist·clock, sun·light, salt·water, school·yard, price·list, rain·cloud, north·west, lava·rock, ice·cube.
                               Many more examples of mid-dot words are accessible from the list atop the Grammar page.
            Peoplese has many hundreds of mid-dot words - greatly limiting memorization, a big time-saver for students.
            A mid-dot can be typed be pressing alt-m on a keyboard. For instructions, see FAQ, accessible atop the home page.

Parentheses  (  )
            Parentheses interrupt a sentence by providing a clarifying explanation.
                       Ex:  Jose Sanchez and Maria (his new wife) will be our new neighbors.

Period ( . )
            A period is  required after declrative sentences to indicate a full stop.
                    After each sentence, leave two blank spaces.
            A period is also required after an abbreviation, followed by a single blank space.

Question mark  ( ? )
            A question-mark at the end of a sentence indicates a question.

Quote Marks  (  "  )
      Double-quote∙marks  ( “...” )
            To frame dialog.
            For titles of articles, short stories, songs, poems – in which the main words are capitalized.
            To highlighting words within a sentence.  Ex:  She pronounced the word “cake” correctly.
      Single∙quote∙marks (‘ ...’ )
            For quotes within quotes.  E.g. “I asked him, 'How much?’”
            For thoughts.  E.g., ‘I’ll never go,’ she decided.
      Note:   Placement of quote∙marks is logical (using the British, not American system):
             E.g.  It’s hard to pronounce ‘rhythm’.  [Not American English, It’s hard to pronounce `rhythm.’ ]

Semi-colon  ( ; )

            Two related sentences can be combined into a single sentence separated by a semicolon.
                        Ex:  Actual
۔ly, we have four dogs; the one you see۔d yesterday iz the small۔est.
                                    The above could be separated into two sentences, but not as smoothly.
             Semi-colons are also used to separate long items in a series, when those items contain commas.
                        (Use of commas to separate items containing commas would be too confusing.)
                                    Ex:  Awards wuz give
۔t to Maria, in the photo wear۔ing a red dress; Lucia, wear۔ing blue; 
                                   and Rosa, wear
۔ing a white gown.
                        When linking two related quotes.
                                    Ex:  “I dont like chocolate,” she say
۔d, push۔ing the box away; “too sweet.”

Underline  __
          Underline is used to emphasize a word or words.  Ex:  Please stop?  Do you really want to go now?
                 (Unlike italics, underlining is handy for handwritten notes, letters, etc.)
          Book titles are also underlined.


          Clock time:  a colon is used to separate hour from minutes.  1 day = 24 hours, 1 hour = 60 minutes                                         Ex: 7:31 p. m., 19:31, both refer to the same evening time.  9 a. m. is in the morning.
          Length, distance:  metric system. 
          Temperature:  centigrade.  100 degrees between freezing and boiling.
               Date format:  day + month + year.  E.g., 1-02-2025, 1/2/25, 1 Feb 2025, 30 March 2017.
                         BCE (before common era) and CE (common era)  [English:  BC and AD.]
          Number formats: 
                         1205    years  (no comma)
                         1,205   numbers  (commas after each 3 digits).  Ex:  1,200,000,000 (1.2 billion)
          Number spelling:  Spell out numbers zero and one through ten; others use digital form.
                          Ex:: All three friends were 24 years old.
                                     Mathematical, scientific, technical texts.
                                     A number at the beginning of a sentence is spelled out.  E.g., Sixteen years ago…
          Numbers / usage:
                           Ex:  three-meters tall tree [Not English, “three-meter tall tree”]
                           Ex:  five-years-old child  [Not English, “five-year-old child”]
                           Ex:  Forty-millions ants [not English, “40 million ants”]
                           “dozen” not used except within dialog quote∙marks of English speakors.  Use “tens”.

                           Monetary currencies.  dollars, euros, kyats, bahts, yuans, etc.
                            In Peoplese, the type of currency precedes the amount.
                                      Ex:  $10.25,
100, £1,000, ¥50,000,000, €10
                            A period is inserted before the decimil amount.
                                      Ex:  $10.25 (ten and one-quarter dollars)
                            If the amount is greater than one, we add the plural "s" to the monetary currency name.
                                       Ex:  two bahts, three yuans, four euros
                            Monetary currency names are not capitalized.

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